Salvia miltiorrhiza extract protects white matter and the hippocampus from damage induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats
- Kim, Min-Soo; Bang, Ji Hye; Lee, Jun; Kim, Hyeon Woo; Sung, Sang Hyun; Han, Jung-Soo; Jeon, Won Kyung
- Issue Date
- BioMed Central
- BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 15(1):415
- Salvia miltiorrhiza; Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion; Myelin basic protein; Toll-like receptor
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Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM), an herbal plant, is traditionally used in the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in Asian countries. SM has multiple biological effects including anti-inflammatory activity. The present study is aimed at investigating the effects of SM extract in rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was induced in male Wistar rats by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo). The rats were divided into 3 groups: sham-control, BCCAo treated with vehicle, and BCCAo treated with SM extract. Vehicle or SM extract (200 mg/kg) were administered daily by oral gavage beginning on day 21 after BCCAo and continuing to day 42. Immunohistochemical analyses were used to measure Iba-1-positive microglia and myelin basic protein (MBP) in white matter and hippocampal tissue. In addition, the expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, and the toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway in the hippocampus, were analyzed by western blot.
Administration of SM extract attenuated the activation of microglial cells in the white matter and hippocampus after BCCAo. SM extract also prevented neuroinflammation after BCCAo by reducing hippocampal levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, and increasing the reduced levels of MBP in the white matter and hippocampus. Further, the administration of SM extract alleviated the up-regulation of hippocampal TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) in rats with chronic BCCAo.
Our findings suggest that SM may be a promising therapeutic candidate in vascular dementia because of its protective effects against damage to the white matter and hippocampus after BCCAo.