S-Space Researcher Institutes (연구소) American Studies Institute (미국학연구소) 미국학 미국학 Volume 39 Number 1/2 (2016)
가내하인에서 ‘전기하인’으로: 남북전쟁 이후부터 1930년대까지 사회변화와 기술변화의 관련성에 관한 시론
From Domestic Servant to ‘Electric Servant’: an Essay on the Relationship Between Social Change and Technological Change after the Civil War until the 1930s
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 미국학연구소
- 미국학, Vol.39 No.2, pp. 1-42
- 사회변화; 기술변화; 가내하인; 전기하인; 가사노동; 중간계급; 가전제품; 주부; social change; technological change; domestic servant; electric servant; housework; middle-class; domestic/electric appliances; housewife
- What is the relationship between social change and technological change? According to the technological determinism, a technological change results in a social change, while the theory of social shaping of technology tells us a social change brings about a technological change. Housework has been treated as drudgery. While the industrialization after the Civil War had been propelled, domestic service became common in the middle-class families. Despite the increasing demand from the middle-class families and the increasing number of the domestic servants, since 1880s the ratio between domestic servant and family had been declined. At the nearly same time, the electrification in America had been spread. At some point, the electricity had been a part of everyday life; the domestic appliances such as electric iron, vacuum cleaner, washing machine, or refrigerator had been introduced to the American homes under the name of‘electric servant.’ They were advertised as the time-saving or labor-saving devices for the housework so that they could be expected to replace the domestic servants. In this article, we will trace the possibility of causality between the reduction of domestic servants and the increase of the domestic appliances.