S-Space College of Education (사범대학) Program in Global Education Cooperation (협동과정-글로벌교육협력전공) Theses (Master's Degree_협동과정-글로벌교육협력전공)
A Study on Teachers’ Attrition in Primary Schools in Yeka, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
- 사범대학 협동과정글로벌교육협력전공
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 대학원
- Ethiopian teacher; Attrition; Retention; Career Ladder System; Salary; Quality of Education
- 학위논문 (석사)-- 서울대학교 대학원 : 협동과정글로벌교육협력전공, 2015. 2. 유성상.
- sometimes, the wage increase is not high enough to maintain the basic standard of living. In addition, a sharply lower wage level in comparison to the wages earned at other jobs causes teachers to change jobs.
In this study, first, a model for changing jobs for Ethiopian elementary school teachers was suggested. Promotion structure and wage structure were suggested as the main factors of changing jobs and a decrease in the quality of teachers was the side effect caused by changing jobs. Second, the study divided and interpreted the inner and external characteristics of a long-service teacher and a teacher who changes jobs. The external characteristics of a long-service teacher are personal repulsion about defection and an active use of the promotion structure based on joining a party. The inner characteristic of a long-service teacher is the pursuit of joy in the teaching profession. The external characteristics of a teacher who changes jobs are repulsion about political activity and dissatisfaction with the low wage structure and the work burden, while the inner characteristic of a teacher who changes jobs is the use of tools for changing jobs in the teaching profession.
The qualitative improvement of education in developing countries is now a serious issue, globally, and teachers play an important role in offering high quality education. Therefore, a supply and demand program for high quality teachers and policies for the man-power development of teachers has been developed. However, preventing the loss of high quality teachers is more urgent than addressing the supply and man-power development of teachers, so a policy approach is needed that focuses on the field and recognizes and addresses the risk elements that exist in an incomplete educational system rather than merely suggesting theoretical policies.
Ethiopia made an attempt at educational reform in 1994, so it prepared a foundation for the realization of universal, high quality education. In an attempt to realize two purposes, the educational reform in 1994 included inducements such as a curriculum change in teacher training schools to address the supply and demand for high quality teachers and the development of a promotion structure based on a wage increase system. In spite of these inducements, the supply of teachers in Ethiopia is still a significant problem, and the fact that high quality teachers change jobs has become a serious social problem. Therefore, this study aims to analyze why Ethiopian teachers want to change jobs. Furthermore, the study aims to discuss the characteristics of teachers engaged in long-service.
This study concludes that the promotion structure of Ethiopian teachers and the low-salaried structure have an influence on teachers’ decisions to change jobs. First, an ambiguous promotion structure is associated with teachers deciding to change jobs. At present, teachers are enlisted according to the customs of a particular political party
in the past, appointed teachers were members of a cabinet, so promotion was determined based on their political activity and political affiliation. Thus, the promotion structure was based on personal connections and political tendency not on ability, which caused competent teachers to change jobs. Second, an increase in the work related to politics based on the promotion structure also influences a teacher’s decision to change jobs. That is, an increase in the work, such as the suggestion of joining a party, the inspection of party activity, and the political conflict resolution of the community and school, not only results in an increase in the work fatigability of a manager but also a decrease in teacher morale. Therefore, general teachers regard principals and vice-principals not as objects of envy but as political agitators. Third, it is difficult to form a democratic culture in the teaching profession due to the correlation between education and politics. An undemocratic school culture obstructs consultation and democratic discussion between teachers. In an environment that suppresses free expression and the freedom of activity, teachers that choose to change jobs do so in order to leave an undemocratic organizational culture. Fourth, a wage increase that is obtained by way of a promotion is not as attractive as a wage increase based on a promotion system table in which the wage increase rate is poor due to the imposition of excessive utility bills and contributions