에리카 피셔-리히테의 퍼포먼스 이론 연구 : '수행적인 것의 미학'을 중심으로

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인문대학 협동과정 공연예술학전공
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서울대학교 대학원
performanceaesthetics of performanceperformativityautopoiesisevent
학위논문 (석사)-- 서울대학교 대학원 : 협동과정 공연예술학전공, 2014. 8. 신혜경.

The study on Erika Fischer-Lichte’s performance theory
-Focusing on the “The Aesthetics of the peformative” -

Inkyung Baik
Interdisciplinary Program in Performing Arts Studies
The Graduate School
Seoul National University

The present study examines the “aesthetics of the performative” as a new paradigm for performance. To do so, this study reconstructs Fischer-Lichte’s research on performance with its major concepts, and seeks the significance and possibilities of the aesthetics of the performative based on it. Fischer-Lichte points out that in the traditional perspective of performance, action on stage has been considered to be expressing a pre-existing thing. She opposes such view and defines action as performative. According to Fischer-Lichte, actions cannot express something. Rather, actions allow perceivers and actors to meet and let the surrounding social reality to be formed. Fischer-Lichte presumes performance as the epitome of such performative action, and sets out to reinterpret the old ideas of theatre with the new concept of performativity. Traditional concepts of theatre have their roots in the dichotomous world view that divides stage and audience
sign and signifier
theatrical text and action
and mind and body. Fischer-Lichte, however, applies the concept of performative action in analyzing performance, and thus brings in those oppositions into relationships or processes. Performance is formed in between those emerging relationships and proceeding processes.
This notion of performance is strengthened by the autopoietic feedback loop. While the concept of performativity in Fischer-Lichte’s research explains the process in which performance is formed by participants, the autopoietic feedback loop explains the characteristics of perception that participants experience in performance. This is the aesthetic quality of performance that Fischer-Lichte emphasizes. Autopoietic feedback loop connects every individual that circulates and coexists in the performance space, and creates a total network. Due to such condition, a unique environment for perception is formed in performance. With the feedback loop that connects among individuals, and between the whole and the individual, performance forms itself as an organic whole or an autopoietic system. The concept of autopoiesis is important in Fischer-Lichte’s theory, since the condition of formation for autopoietic feedback loop is the same as that for performance, and they both require the bodily coexistence of participants. Therefore the aesthetic quality of performance equally exists in all kinds of performance
yet due to this reason, every event of the same performance is formed differently depending on the conditions of the individuals that construct it. Through the discussion of the aesthetic quality of performance, it is apparent that Fischer-Lichte considers performance as a system itself, as a structurally determined system that cannot be determined by exterior elements but only by the structural changes from within
and defines this system as “event”.
Fischer-Lichte’s study on performance analyzes the phenomena produced in performance, and systemizes them as an aesthetic theory by finding their unique generalities. When explaining performance, Fischer-Lichte’s aesthetics of performance does not let external values interfere and judge the performance, but only accepts the unique generalities that each performance produces. This perspective seems to agree to the “autonomy” that traditional aesthetics had granted art, but also opposes to it. The quality of “event” that Fischer-Lichte has given to performance allows us the realization of the world being produced by ourselves, and that of ourselves continuously changing due to that world. The aesthetic quality of performance lies in the dynamics that live, move, and thus change. Such quality cannot be explained by the traditional aesthetics, which evaluated the value of art with an emphasis on the work as an objective thing, and rather resembles the uncontrollable nature of our lives. The aesthetics of the performative thus advances to the aesthetics of life.
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