S-Space Graduate School of Public Health (보건대학원) Dept. of Public Health (보건학과) Theses (Master's Degree_보건학과)
인스턴트식품과 발효식품 섭취빈도와 성인 알레르기 질환과의 관련성 연구
Association of instant and fermented food intake with allergic diseases in Korean adults
- 보건대학원 보건학과
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 대학원
- Allergic disease; asthma; rhinitis; atopic dermatitis; instant food; fermented food; dietary pattern
- 학위논문 (석사)-- 서울대학교 대학원 : 보건대학원 보건학과, 2018. 2. 정효지.
- Introduction : Allergic diseases are immune-mediated disorders. Major allergic diseases are asthma, rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Symptoms of allergic disease include itching and swelling of body tissue, runny nose, sneezing, wheezing, skin rash, coughing, nausea, diarrhea, and potentially life-threatening anaphylaxis. Allergic diseases are frequently accompanied by other allergic diseases, which is referred to as allergic march. The prevalence of allergic diseases has been increasing in Korean adults. Correspondingly, the social and economic burden caused by allergic diseases as immunologic and chronic diseases has also increased. Various factors have been found to be associated with the prevalence of allergic diseases. However, a relatively small body of studies paid attention to dietary pattern.
Objectives : The first objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between dietary patterns and allergic diseases in Korean adults. Next, I will examine whether instant food and fermented food intake are each associated with allergic diseases in Korean adults. Lastly, this study will investigate whether dietary patterns, instant food intake, and fermented food intake are each associated with the number of allergic diseases in Korean adults.
Methods : This study used the data of 2268 adults (1,105 men and 1,563 women), aged 19-64 years, from the 2015 Korean National Health And Nutrition Examine Survey (KNHANES) data set. Information on age, sex, education level, income, drinking, smoking, and exercise was collected to show general characteristics of the subjects during the heath interview of 2015 KNHANES. The survey also included food frequency questionnaire(FFQ). I conducted a principal component analysis of the FFQ result and identified 4 dietary patterns which I named: ‘General food (Pattern-Ⅰ)’, ‘Westernized and Instant food (Pattern-Ⅱ)’, ’Bread and Sugar (Pattern-Ⅲ)’, and ‘Grain and Kimchi (Pattern-Ⅳ)’. For ‘Instant food group’ I included ramen, pizza, hamburger, cereals, cookies, crackers, ham and coffee-cream. For ‘Fermented food group’ I included all kinds of doenjang, all kinds of kimchi, fermented seafood, yogurt, makgeolli, and beer. The odd ratios(ORs) of allergic diseases and number of allergic diseases were calculated according to the ‘4 dietary patterns’, ‘Instant food intake’ and ‘Fermented food intake’. All confounding factors were controlled.
Results : Comparison between the highest quartile and the lowest quartile of pattern score of ‘Westernized and Instant food(Pattern-Ⅱ)’ revealed higher prevalence of allergic diseases(OR,1.587
95%CI, 1.147-2.195) and positively associated with higher number of allergic diseases. Comparing highest quartile with lowest quartile of pattern score of ‘Grain and Kimchi(Pattern-Ⅳ)’ were associated with lower prevalence of allergic diseases(OR,0.657
95%CI, 0.485-0.888) and negatively associated with higher number of allergic diseases. Comparison between the third quartile and the lowest quartile ‘Fermented food group’ revealed lower prevalence of allergic disease(OR,0.705
95%CI, 0.507-0.981) and negatively associated with higher number of allergic diseases. Comparison between the highest quartile and the lowest quartile ‘Instant food group’ revealed higher prevalence of atopic dermatitis(OR,2.683
95%CI, 1.313-5.484) and positively associated with higher number of allergic diseases of male. Unexpectedly negative association was found between intake of ’Bread and Sugar(Pattern-Ⅲ)’ and the prevalence of allergic diseases(OR,0.685
Conclusion : The higher level of consumption of ‘Westernized and Instant food(Pattern-Ⅱ)’ and the lower level consumption of ‘Grain and Kimchi(Pattern-Ⅳ)’ had the higher risk of allergic diseases. The higher level of consumption of ‘Instant food group’ had the higher risk of atopic dermatitis. And the lower consumption of ‘Fermented food group’ had the higher risk of allergic diseases. The result from this study can be used for nutrition education and guideline to reduce risk factor for population of allergic diseases also preventing allergic diseases of general population.
Keywords : Allergic disease, asthma, rhinitis, atopic dermatitis,
instant food, fermented food, dietary pattern