북한의 ‘과학기술 강국’ 구상과 남북 과학기술 교류협력
North Korea's Vision of ‘a Scientific and Technical Power’ and the Inter-Korean Exchange and Cooperation of Science and Technology

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서울대학교 통일평화연구원
통일과 평화, Vol.10 No.2, pp. 81-113
scientific and technical powerconcentrating on the economic constructionmaking all people experts on science and technologyeducational revolution in the new centuryknowledge economyinformatization of economycooperation and exchange of science and technology과학기술 강국경제 건설에 총력 집중전민 과학기술 인재화새 세기 교육혁명경제의 정보화지식경제과학기술 교육협력
To understand North Korea's demand for inter-Korean exchanges and cooperation, it is important to pay attention to its vision of ‘a scientific and technical power.’ At the 7th Party Convention in May 2016, the highest resolution body of the Workers’ Party, the Kim Jong-Un regime stipulated the building of ‘a scientific and technical power’ as ‘the primary task’ for making its country a socialist power. At the Central Committee of the party held in April 2018, the regime decided ‘concentrating all efforts on the socialist economic construction’ as the new strategic line following the line of ‘simultaneously pushing forward the economic construction and the building of a nuclear force.’ In addition, the regime resolved to develop science and education rapidly in order to realize the new line. Succeeding Kim Jong-Il’s science and technology-oriented policy, the regime has been emphasizing the development of science and technology from the beginning. The regime has been raising the proportion of science and technology in all sectors of the nation such as economy, education, defense, healthcare and culture for the rapid development of the state based on science and technology. North Korea has also tried to increase the share of science and technology in foreign affairs, and proposed to South Korea several times to exchange science and technology. Even North Korean scholars already published a paper in a South Korean journal in August 2018. Therefore, in order to enhance the possibility of inter-Korean exchanges and cooperation, it is necessary to consider cooperation and exchange of science and technology at various levels and forms in all spheres of society such as business, education, medicine, culture, and civic organizations as well as scientists and engineers.
남북 교류협력에 대한 북한의 수요를 파악하기 위해서는 북한의 ‘과학기술 강국’ 구상에 주목해야 한다. 북한은 2016년 로동당의 최고 의결기구인 당 대회를 36년 만에 개최하여 과학기술 강국을 사회주의 강국을 건설하기 위해 ‘선차적으로 점령해야 할 목표’로 규정하였다. 2018년 4월에는 로동당 중앙위원회 전원회의를 개최하여 ‘경제와 핵의 병진노선’을 종결하고 ‘사회주의 경제 건설에 총력 집중’을 새로운 전략적 노선으로 결정했으며, 이를 실현하기 위해 과학기술과 교육 발전에 주력하기로 결의했다. 김정일 시대의 과학기술 중시 노선을 계승한 김정은 정권은 출범 직후부터 과학기술 발전을 강조해왔으며, 과학기술에 기초한 국가의 빠른 발전을 위해 경제·교육·보건의료·문화 등 모든 부문에서 과학기술의 비중을 높여왔다. 북한은 대외관계에서도 과학기술의 비중을 높이려 하고 있으며, 한국에도 과학기술 교류협력을 여러 차례 제안하고 한국 학술지에 북한 학자들의 논문을 투고하기도 했다. 따라서 남북 교류협력의 성사 가능성을 높이기 위해서는 국내 과학기술계는 물론이고 경제계, 교육계, 의료계, 문화계, 민간단체 등도 각자의 수준에 맞는 과학기술 교류협력을 검토할 필요가 있다.
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Researcher Institutes (연구소)Institute for Peace and Unification Studies (통일평화연구원)Journal of peace and unification studies (통일과 평화)Journal of peace and unification studies (통일과 평화) vol.10 no.01/02 (2018)
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