S-Space College of Medicine/School of Medicine (의과대학/대학원) Ophthalmology (안과학전공) Journal Papers (저널논문_안과학전공)
Quantitative proteomic analysis of aqueous humor from patients with drusen and reticular pseudodrusen in age-related macular degeneration
- Baek, Je-Hyun; Lim, Daehan; Park, Kyu Hyung; Chae, Jae-Byoung; Jang, Hyoik; Lee, Jonghyun; Chung, Hyewon
- Issue Date
- BioMed Central
- BMC Ophthalmology, 18(1):289
To identify novel biomarkers related to the pathogenesis of dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we adopted a human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell culture model that mimics some features of dry AMD including the accumulation of intra- and sub-RPE deposits. Then, we investigated the aqueous humor (AH) proteome using a data-independent acquisition method (sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion mass spectrometry) for dry AMD patients and controls.
After uniformly pigmented polarized monolayers of human fetal primary RPE (hfRPE) cells were established, the cells were exposed to 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), followed by Western blotting, immunofluorescence analysis and ELISA of cells or conditioned media for several proteins of interest. Data-dependent acquisition for identification of the AH proteome and SWATH-based mass spectrometry were performed for 11 dry AMD patients according to their phenotypes (including soft drusen and reticular pseudodrusen [RPD]) and 2 controls (3 groups).
Increased intra- and sub-RPE deposits were observed in 4-HNE-treated hfRPE cells compared with control cultures based on APOA1, cathepsin D, and clusterin immunoreactivity. Additionally, the differential abundance of proteins in apical and basal chambers with or without 4-HNE treatment confirmed the polarized secretion of proteins from hfRPE cells. A total of 119 proteins were quantified in dry AMD patients and controls by SWATH-MS. Sixty-five proteins exhibited significantly altered abundance among the three groups. A two-dimensional principal component analysis plot was generated to identify typical proteins related to the pathogenesis of dry AMD. Among the identified proteins, eight proteins, including APOA1, CFHR2, and CLUS, were previously considered major components or regulators of drusen. Three proteins (SERPINA4, LUM, and KERA proteins) have not been previously described as components of drusen or as being related to dry AMD. Interestingly, the LUM and KERA proteins, which are related to extracellular matrix organization, were upregulated in both RPD and soft drusen.
Differential protein expression in the AH between patients with drusen and RPD was quantified using SWATH-MS in the present study. Detailed proteomic analyses of dry AMD patients might provide insights into the in vivo biology of drusen and RPD.