S-Space College of Humanities (인문대학) Religious Studies (종교학과) 종교와 문화(Religion and Culture) 종교와 문화(Religion and Culture) 32/33호(2017)
캉유웨이(康有爲)의 공자 신성화 논리: 『논어주(論語注)』를 중심으로
Kang Youwei’s Deification of Confucius: focusing on Commentary on the Confucian Analects
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 종교문제연구소
- 종교와 문화, Vol.32, pp. 165-207
- 캉유웨이(康有爲); 신성화(神聖化); 『논어주(論語注)』; 신성(神聖); 공자세계화(孔子世界化); Kang Youwei; deification; Commentary on the Confucian Analects; universalization of Confucius
- This article is aimed to investigate the perspective and logic of Kang Youwei(康有爲, 1858~1927)`s deification (神聖化) of Confucius in Commentary on the Confucian Analects (『論語注』) on the basis of New Text Confucianism(今文經學). The former part disclosed Kang Youwei`s “great principles in subtle words” (微言大義) in Confucian Analects, namely Great Unity (大同), Spiritual Intelligence (神明), and Benevolence (仁). And then the latter part illuminated the main characters of Confucius` Way (道) and Virtue (德), and the agnostic aspects of Confucius as spiritual sage(神聖). First, Kang Youwei imagined the utopia of Great Unity (大同) as the world completely realizing the idea of freedom (自由) and equality (平等) introduced from modern West. Especially, the basis of Confucian idea that everything is essentially same (萬物一體), he insisted not only people`s equality (人民平等) but also all sentient being`s equality (衆生平等). Spiritual Intelligence was defined as the inner subjective ground breaking through all barriers between self and others, and making Great Unity possible. Finally, the Benevolence as the innate essence of everything and the public virtue of universal love (博愛), was redefined as the gradual salvation of all sentient beings. As a result, the Great Unity was naturally identified with the Great Benevolence (大仁). Second, Kang Youwei insisted that Confucius` Way, stressing the Human Way (人道) than Spiritual Way (神道), had contributed greatly to the development of human civilization from the perspective of religious evolutionism. In the sphere of Human Way, the inner sage (內聖) had the priority over the outer king (外王). Confucius` Supreme Virtue (至德) was defined as metaphysical dimension beyond language and knowledge while the Six Canon (六經)`s words for education were regarded as branch or trace. Meanwhile, Confucius could become the whole humankind`s sage over the national border on the basis of universal language containing public law. Finally, Kang Youwei imagined Confucius as actively participating in the affairs of the world without any attachment. Especially, Kang insisted that the awareness of one`s own fate should be necessary for the duty of Benevolence. From these characteristics, we can conclude that Kang Youwei defied Confucius as fundamentally agnostic spiritual sage (神聖) and universal religious leader (敎主) for all mankind beyond chinese national border. In this sense, he pursued the universalization of Confucius (孔子世界化) over the sinification of Confucius (孔子中國化) based on nationalism.