영웅의 반정립적인 측면과 동반자의 역할을 통해 바라보는 현대의 영웅 신화: 영화 을 통한 길가메쉬 서사시의 재해석
A Study of Contemporary Heroic Myth through the Antithesis of Hero and Role of Companion: Reinterpretation of the Epic of Gilgamesh based on Movie "Chronicle(2012)"

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종교학연구, Vol. 36 pp. 75-107
길가메쉬 서사시슈퍼 히어로길가메쉬대중매체영화와 신화영웅 신화반정립 인물The Epic of GilgameshChronicle(2012)Super HeroGilgameshMovieMythMass mediaHeroic MythAntithese
This Paper focused on interpreting how ancient heroic myth changed in the modern age in comparison with the medium of film among modern mass media. In particular, we try to find the message about situation of modern society through the contemporary media, through how the character's personalities were newly reflected and the characteristics appearing in the newly reflected parts. Through this study, the purpose of this paper was to understand the changes in the character typical of heroic myth by interpreting the types of characters appearing in the movie "Chronicle(2012)" and comparing them with those of the epic of Gilgamesh.
Heroic Myth is basically described the growth and achievement of hero, and has emerged in various divisions in all cultures of the world. Ancient people created various stories based on the folklore that had been handed down from their ancestors, and composed the stories into various forms, such as Oral mythology and epic poem. through this process, ancient heroic myths were passed on to modern people with various forms of records.
Heroic myth are central to the story by a person with mythical characteristic of "Heroes." Heroes are given extraordinary abilities form birth, either from heaven or from god. And they come into the human world with the ability they are given and embody it in a divine form eo make achievements. A hero can be a monarch who rules a nation through his abilities, or a hero in tragic. Or they saved the people at their own sacrifice.
Hero mythology exists in various forms, and has each characteristic of myth and legend. That is, it takes a form that includes both unrealistic and realistic features of myths and legends through various aspects of the hero. This mythology created the beauty of the human world through the story of a hero, and through his normative aspect, he present a lesson in Justice. Among them, The Epic of Gilgamesh was the first heroic myth, which provided a frame for the existing heroic myth. The epic of gilgamesh in divided into stories about the adventures of Gilgamesh anc Enkidu and a journey to meet Utnapishtim(or Atrahasis) in search of eternal life.
In the beginning, Gilgamesh, the king of Uruk, meets a companion named Enkidu. And Gilgamesh has changed from tyrant to hero. In Ancient Sumerian and Akkadian, one can see how a hero grew up through the friendship, and what was behind that growth. Through Gigamesh, who hs strong power but has not developed a heroic aspect, and Enkidu, who appears to march him, through which he drew an ideal figure as a human being.
The heroic aspect of the Gilgamesh Epic was connected to the ancient literature, such as, Iliad and Odyssey. It has also been followed by epic poems in the middle ages and a modern novel. And in modern times, new forms of heroic myth(or epic) appeared in many genres.(Graphic novels, animations, movies, and TV Dramas) In this times, especially, heroes from myths and legends have been newly portrayed according to the views of the contemporary people, and variously painted according to the background of the day.
For example, in movies such as "The Magnificent 7", the westerns movie featured seven heroic figures in the background of the American frontier, while "the Batman" of DC Comics shows how Bruce Wayne emerges as a hero against the backdrop of a virtual city(Gotham), the near future.
The two examples that symbolize contemporary myths show that characters with heroic characteristics, based on the setting of the times or hypothetical background, are not stereotyped and revealed as they are, but in new and diverse forms. And this variety forms has developed in a way that constructed a new heroic myth that delievers a social message with the emergence of the Marvel Cinematic Universe.
This suggests that modern mass media, like as the Epic of Gilgamesh, can be reinterpreted and re-applied to the central figure. The next step is to find and interpret the hero mythical elements and their meanings that appear in contemporary mass media. For this Purpose, the first thing to interpret is a modern interpretation of the character. Namely, It is to identify the ideal aspects and characteristics of hero stories and characters in the mass media, and to explore what points were found in the interpretation, by comparing each aspect of the characters(hero, companion, antagonist) In this process, Based on modern ideas about the ideal that ancient people thought of in heroic myths and modern people's interpretation of heroism, modern myths are reconstructed and depicted in various forms.
And It defines modern mass media as "A New types of myth" and allows them to conjure up the emotions and perspectives of modern people that emerge within the myth, and the new ideals, and human images.
Through the new persona in the modern "A new types of Myth", the director of the movie understood how he wanted to express the society of the day, how he described the changing emotions of the people living in the society, and how he wanted to talk about the problems they were having in society. And the modern media is to form a new type of hero ic myth in ancient times and other forms. This form of heroism is interpreted through the development of the movie "Chronicle" and through the changes of the main characters.
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College of Humanities (인문대학)Religious Studies (종교학과)종교학연구(Journal of Religious Studies) 종교학연구(Journal of Religious Studies) 36집(2018)
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