S-Space College of Humanities (인문대학) Religious Studies (종교학과) 종교학연구(Journal of Religious Studies) 종교학연구(Journal of Religious Studies) 36집(2018)
만들어지는 무당: 무속학원 전승과정 현장조사
How A Shaman Is Created: Focusing on the Curriculum in the Musog Hagwon
- Issue Date
- 종교학연구, Vol.36, pp. 109-130
- 이 논문은 종교학과 학부 졸업 논문을 수정하여 투고한 글입니다
- Just as Protestant ministers, Buddhistic monks and Catholic priests are made, Korean shamans are also made. However, the learning process to be a shaman is often overlooked. This is because the phenomenon of possession plays a big role when the public constructs the image of a shaman. According to George Mead(1934), "what goes to make up the organized self is the organization of the attitudes which are common to the group." Therefore, the image formed by the other is closely related to his or her identity.
Based on this theoretical conception, this article deals with the relationship between the formation of shaman identity and shaman image.
Shaman is made through education. "Shaman Academy(Musog Hagwon)" is the scene of nowaday changing shamanism. The Musog Hagwon is a field that reveals how the transmission of shamanic knowledge has changed, and shows how shamans are establishing their identity through education. This study seeks to understand how the identity of a shaman is established by examining the learning process in the Musog Hagwon.
The trainees themselves take the education curriculum as their own standard for the shaman identity and build their identities while being influenced by the image of the shaman, which others have created.
Firstly, the trainees form their shaman identity through distinction. For example, the trainee shamans recognize themselves as 'real' shamans, saying "they are 'fake' shamans who can not perform rituals." Although the distinction of the 'real' and the 'fake' is not an important issue for outsiders, they establish their own identity through distinction in the group of shamans.
Secondly, "Material Religion", which is evoked in the learning process of rituals, forms the identity of the shaman. As they acquire a knowledge of how to manipulate ceremonial objects accompanied in a shamanic ritual, shamans give sacredness to the materials.
Ultimately, the identity of a shaman established in the Musog Hagwon has inseparable relation with the reflection of shaman who is drawn by the public-other. The shaman with craft is imprinted with the image of the shaman that the general public possesses. Also, performing splendid ritual is helpful to the livelihood of individual shamans. Therefore, the shaman responds to people’s image and expectations and finds the Musog Hagwon to acquire conspicuous skills.
In conclusion, the Musog Hagwon is a location where nowness and timeliness of the shamanism can be captured, and the trainees are able to internalize religiosity through the education process and establish their identity. The fact that the visible ritual craft is emphasized through the education in the Musog Hagwon and the shaman image has an indissoluble relation with the shaman identity reflects the changes of the times in which material culture is increasingly emphasized.