S-Space College of Engineering/Engineering Practice School (공과대학/대학원) Dept. of Material Science and Engineering (재료공학부) Journal Papers (저널논문_재료공학부)
In situ tracking kinetic pathways of Li+/Na+ substitution during ion-exchange synthesis of LixNa1.5-xVOPO4F0.5
- Park, Young-Uk; Bai, Jianming; Wang, Liping; Yoon, Gabin; Zhang, Wei; Kim, Hyungsub; Lee, Seongsu; Kim, Sung-Wook; Looney, J. Patrick; Kang, Kisuk; Wang, Feng
- Issue Date
- Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol.139 No.36, pp.12504-12516
- Ion exchange is a ubiquitous phenomenon central to wide industrial applications, ranging from traditional (bio)chemical separation to the emerging chimie douce synthesis of materials with metastable structure for batteries and other energy applications. The exchange process is complex, involving substitution and transport of different dons under non-equilibrium conditions, and thus difficult to probe, leaving a gap in mechanistic understanding of kinetic exchange pathways toward final products. Herein, we report in situ tracking kinetic pathways of Li+/Na+ substitution during solvothermal ion-exchange synthesis of LixNa1.5-xVOPO4F0.5 (0 <= x <= 1.5), a promising multi-Li polyanionic cathode for batteries. The real-time observation, corroborated by first-principles calculations, reveals a selective replacement of Na+ by Li+, leading to peculiar Na+/Li+/vacancy orderings in the intermediates. Contradicting the traditional belief of facile topotactic substitution via solid solution reaction, an abrupt two-phase transformation occurs and predominantly governs the kinetics of ion exchange and transport in the ID polyanionic framework, consequently leading to significant difference of Li stoichiometry and electrochemical properties in the exchanged products. The findings may help to pave the way for rational design of ion exchange synthesis for making new materials.
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