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Bacillus subtilis spores as adjuvants against avian influenza H9N2 induce antigen-specific antibody and T cell responses in White Leghorn chickens

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Authors
Lee, Ji Eun; Kye, Yoon-Chul; Park, Sung-Moo; Shim, Byoung-Shik; Yoo, Sungsik; Hwang, Eunmi; Kim, Hyungkuen; Kim, Sung-Jo; Han, Seung Hyun; Park, Tae Sub; Park, Byung-Chul; Yun, Cheol-Heui
Issue Date
2020-05-24
Publisher
BMC
Citation
Veterinary Research. 2020 May 24;51(1):68
Abstract
Low-pathogenicity avian influenza H9N2 remains an endemic disease worldwide despite continuous vaccination, indicating the need for an improved vaccine strategy. Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), a gram-positive and endospore-forming bacterium, is a non-pathogenic species that has been used in probiotic formulations for both animals and humans. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect of B. subtilis spores as adjuvants in chickens administered inactivated avian influenza virus H9N2. Herein, the adjuvanticity of B. subtilis spores in chickens was demonstrated by enhancement of H9N2 virus-specific IgG responses. B. subtilis spores enhanced the proportion of B cells and the innate cell population in splenocytes from chickens administered both inactivated H9N2 and B. subtilis spores (Spore + H9N2). Furthermore, the H9N2 and spore administration induced significantly increased expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 compared to that in the H9N2 only group. Additionally, total splenocytes from chickens immunized with inactivated H9N2 in the presence or absence of B. subtilis spores were re-stimulated with inactivated H9N2. The subsequent results showed that the extent of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation was higher in the Spore + H9N2 group than in the group administered only H9N2. Taken together, these data demonstrate that B. subtilis spores, as adjuvants, enhance not only H9N2 virus-specific IgG but also CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses, with an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine production. This approach to vaccination with inactivated H9N2 together with a B. subtilis spore adjuvant in chickens produces a significant effect on antigen-specific antibody and T cell responses against avian influenza virus.
ISSN
1297-9716
Language
English
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10371/168615
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13567-020-00788-8
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College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (농업생명과학대학)Dept. of Agricultural Biotechnology (농생명공학부)Journal Papers (저널논문_농생명공학부)
College of Dentistry/School of Dentistry (치과대학/치의학대학원)Dept. of Dentistry (치의학과)Journal Papers (저널논문_치의학과)
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