On degree of Endophoricity

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Na, younghee
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서울대학교 인문대학 영어영문학과
영학논집 2(1977): 183-193
Brecht (1974) notes that the was in (5) has as its point of orientation
the speech time.
(1) Mary said that Tom was unwell.
In other words, the past tense of was indicates that the situation concerned
(i.e., Tom's being unwell) takes place in the past relative to
the speech time. He calls ezophoric the tense of a subordinate clause
that has the speech time as its point of orientation. Tenses of the
italicized verbs of sentences in (2) are all exophoric tenses. In (Za)
his being in Europe is in the past relative to the speech time and in
(2b) it is at the present relative to the speech time. The pastness of
embedded tenses in (2c,d) is also relative to the speech time.
Thus, English embedded tense is mostly exophoric, i.e., speech-timebased.
There is another type of embedded tense which has as its point of
orientation the time of the matrix clause. Examples of such embedded
tenses are easily found in Korean. Consider the following.
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College of Humanities (인문대학)English Language and Literature (영어영문학과)영학논집(English Studies)영학논집(English Studies) No.02 (1977)
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