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Detailed histopathologic characterization of the retinopathy, globe enlarged (rge) chick phenotype

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Authors
Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Fischer, Andy; Cernuda-Cernuda, Rafael; Kiupel, Matti; DeGrip, Willem Johan; Sherry, David; Cho, Sa Sun; Shaw, Gillian C.; Evans, Mark G.; Hocking, Paul M.; Petersen-Jones, Simon M.
Issue Date
2005-01-22
Publisher
Molecular Vision
Citation
Mol Vis. 2005 Jan 13;11:11-27.
Keywords
AnimalsApoptosisBlindness/genetics/metabolism/*pathologyCell CountChickensDisease Models, AnimalFluorescent Antibody Technique, IndirectGenes, RecessiveGlial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolismGuanylate Cyclase/metabolismHypertrophyImmunoenzyme TechniquesIn Situ Nick-End LabelingOrbit/*pathologyPhenotypePhotoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate/metabolism/pathologyPresynaptic Terminals/metabolism/pathologyRetina/metabolism/*ultrastructureRetinal Degeneration/genetics/metabolism/*pathologyRod Opsins/metabolismTyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/metabolism
Abstract
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the morphological abnormalities in the retinas of chicks (Gallus gallus) suffering from the autosomal recessive disease, retinopathy, globe enlarged (rge/rge). METHODS: rge/rge affected and age matched control retinas were examined from hatch up to 730 days of age. Thickness of retinal layers at six retinal regions was measured from plastic embedded sections. Morphological features were examined on semi-thin sections by light microscopy and on ultra-thin sections by transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry was performed using a panel of several different antibodies. Additionally, comparative counting of rod outer segments, rows of cells in the inner nuclear layer, and ganglion cells per unit length was performed. RESULTS: The earliest changes observed in rge/rge retinas were disorganization of the outer plexiform layer and abnormal location of the endoplasmic reticulum of the photoreceptors. In rge/rge retinas, cone pedicles were larger, irregular in shape, and usually contained multivesicular bodies. In addition, synaptic ribbons of the cone pedicles and rod spherules in rge/rge retinas were less numerous compared to controls. Large glycogen deposits progressively accumulated in the perinuclear cytoplasm associated with the abnormally located endoplasmic reticuli in accessory cones and rods. Total retinal thickness progressively decreased with age in rge/rge birds. This was accompanied by a decrease in the number of cells in the inner nuclear layer and a decrease in the number of rod outer segments (OSs). Several changes were detected in the rge/rge retinas using immunohistochemistry, including mislocalized opsin immunoreactivity of rod photoreceptors, a decrease in number and disorganization of opsin positive rod OSs (especially in the peripheral regions), a decrease in number of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurites in the distal inner plexiform layer, and activation of macroglial and microglial cells. CONCLUSIONS: As we previously reported, the rge/rge chick has vision loss that is not the result of photoreceptor loss and is unusual in that electroretinographic responses, although abnormal, are maintained until well after vision loss has developed. The phenotype is associated with a developmental disruption of both rod and cone photoreceptor synaptic terminals that progresses with age. It is possible that these changes may be indicative of abnormal circuitry within the outer plexiform layer, and that they underlie the progressive loss of vision in rge/rge birds. Other early changes suggesting photoreceptor abnormality are dilation of photoreceptor cell bodies, abnormal positioning of endoplasmic reticulum in the perinuclear region that is associated with abnormal glycogen deposition, and mislocalization of opsin immunoreactivity in rods. The rge/rge birds develop globe enlargement after the morphological and electroretinographic abnormalities. Globe enlargement in chicks can be induced by a number of different environmental factors. It is possible that abnormal signaling of photoreceptors to inner retinal cells could induce excessive ocular growth in the rge/rge birds. Many of the morphological changes such as retinal thinning seen in older rge/rge birds may be partly the result of the considerable globe enlargement that occurs later in the disease process. Molecular genetic studies to identify the causal gene mutation should help explain the morphological features of the rge/rge phenotype and clarify their association with vision loss and electroretinographic abnormalities.
ISSN
1090-0535 (Electronic)
Language
English
URI
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Citation&list_uids=15660021

http://hdl.handle.net/10371/36650
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College of Medicine/School of Medicine (의과대학/대학원)Anatomy (해부학전공)Journal Papers (저널논문_해부학전공)
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