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프랑스의 지방분권화 개혁과 지역발전
Decentralization Reform and Regional Development in France

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Authors
안영진
Issue Date
1999
Publisher
서울대학교 사회과학연구원
Citation
한국사회과학, Vol.21 No.2/3, pp. 171-197
Abstract
이 글의 목적은 1980년대 초부터 프랑스에서 시행된 지방분권화 개혁정책의 전개과정과 성격을 살펴보고, 그 의의를 평가하는데 있다.프랑스는 1981년 사회당 정권의 등장과 함께 지방분권화를 추진하여 역사적인 지방화시대를 맞이하고 있다.그 배경은 후기 산업사회에서 전래의 중앙집권체제가 비효율적이며, 새로운 시대변화에도 무기력하다는 것이었으며 , 개혁정책의 목표는 중앙이 견지해 온 권한과 책임과 기능을 지방으로 과감하게 이양한다는 것이었다.정책의 내용은 이전의 오랜 지방분권화 노력을 크게 뛰어 넘는 획기적인 것으로서, 이를 통해 각 지역의 경제적, 문화적 삶에 활력이 나타나며, 자치단체들 자율성을 토대로 민주행정을 추구하며, 주민의 지역의식도 성숙되어 가고 있다.하지만 지난 십 수년간의 지방분권화 과정에서 적잖은 문제점이 발견되고 있다.특히 행정계층간 권한배분의 불명확성, 자치단체의 재정부담 확대 조정되지 않은 지방행정구역, 제한된 주민참여 등은 프랑스의 지방분권화 개혁의 정착과 지속적인 지역발전을 위해 앞으로 해결되어야 할 과제로 등장하고 있다. This paper examines the principal features of the ambitious reform regarding decentralization and territorial reorganization implemented in France since 1982 and evaluates the consequences of this reform in terms of regional development.From the early nineteenth century onward, numerous proposals were advanced by intellectuals and politicians to modify the extreme centralization of government.After the end of World War II, French government seemed to have become more seriously concerned with the reform of sub-national administration for a variety of reasons: population movements and inequalities; the need for new forms of functional administration for which old units were insufficient; the problems of duplication and inefficiency; the recognition of the fact that regional provincial attitudes have survived strongly in some areas and that these attitudes may be inconsistent with existing patterns of over-centralization; and the popular desire to participate in a more meaningful type of grass-roots politics.

The most significant innovation since the French Revolution was undertaken soon after the Socialist electoral victory of 1981.The declared objective of the decentralization reform was to devolve powers and responsibilities from Paris to directly elected local and regional governments.The French state was to be decentralized and democratized in accordance with the socialists long-standing electoral promise.The office of prefect was abolished and replaced by that of the commissioner of the republic.The 1982 reform also granted regions a primary role in the formulation and implementation of the national economic plan and territorial policies.And a number of lections of central government were relocated in the hands of the regional and local authorities.The reform has created new opportunities for regional politico-administrative structure, identifiable regional interests and regional political elite.However, the decentralization and regionalization has been relatively limited especially with regard to the allocation of state finance and was only carried out in a fragmentary way.After more one decade the decentralization reform policy now needs new fresh impels to the continuing successes.
ISSN
1226-7325
Language
Korean
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10371/40817
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College of Social Sciences (사회과학대학)Center for Social Sciences (사회과학연구원)한국사회과학한국사회과학 vol.21 (1999)
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