S-Space Graduate School of International Studies (국제대학원) Dept. of International Studies (국제학과) 국제지역연구 국제지역연구 vol.02 (1993)
소련 국가안보 정책의 변화와 결정요인
Determinants and Change of National Security Policy of the Soviet Union
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 지역종합연구소
- 지역연구, Vol.02 No.1, pp. 41-91
- The aims of this paper are to explain the changing process of national security concept and policy of the Soviet Union from the Bolshevik revolution. to the collapse of the Soviet Union and to clarify the reasons why the communist ruling system and the Soviet Union were dissolved. Further, the issus and concepts about national security in international relations were theoretically reviewed and it was discussed about the Soviet security policy toward the Korean peninsula.
In the theoretical part about national security such issues were introduced: difficulty and ambiguity in defining the concept of national security, conflict and contradiction in maintaining national security, the relations between national security and structure of international circumstances, and problems in studying national security since the end or cold war. The changing process of national security concept and policy of the Soviet Union were discussed according to the 3 periods divided such as : ① the establishing period of communist system (1917-1953), ② the emerging period of the Soviet Union as a superiod of the Soviet Union as a superpower in world politics (1951-1985), ③ the dissolving period of the communist system(1985-1991).
In the beginning years of the communist system the Soviet Union did not think about her security in the traditional way, but soon accepted the traditional concept of national security based on the concept of morden state in the Western Europe. That is to say, she took the concept and policy to guarrantee the physical survival of a nation state. During the second period the domain of her national security was expanded from the regional to the global and her weapon system changed from the conventional to the nuclear one, while simultaneously the military strategic concept became aggressive. Her security policy heavily depended on military, resulting in severe arms race with the United States. During Gorvachev period the Soviet concept of national security changed dramatically in the three aspects : ① the national security depending on military means to non-military ones, ② absolute security to common security, ③ devaluation of ideological role in internation relations. In the last years of the Soviet Union her security policy became comprehensive, interdependent, and non-ideological.
The backgrounds which Gorbachev could make the security policy dramatically changed one were as followings: first, Marx-Leninism as her ruling ideology had not been accepted legitimately by people; second, nationality policy toward minority was failed and consequently political integration could not have been achieved; third, from the beginning of 1970s the Soviet economy was stagnant and the competitive power in international market became so weak; fourth, her conventional military technology began to deteriorate nuclear strategy due to the emphasis on; fifth, all of internationally important and rich countries had become her enemies because her foreign policy had been preponderantly dependent on military power; sixth, her strategic environment was not so aggressive and antagonistic to her security rather than she thought.
Historically, the first and most important determinants of Russia"s security policy toward Korea have been the internal political circumstances. Geopolitically her policies toward America, Japan, and China, have been important. Finally economic interests to be able to get anything from Korea have been considered. Among the four major powers surrounding Korea, Russia has spent the least amount of blood for her interests in the Korean peninsula. That is, Russia"s interests in the Korean peninsula have been passive.