S-Space Graduate School of International Studies (국제대학원) Dept. of International Studies (국제학과) 국제지역연구 국제지역연구 vol.04 (1995)
유럽연합의 발전과정과 정치ㆍ경제적 통합
Development of European Economic and Political Integration
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 지역종합연구소
- 지역연구, Vol.04 No.2, pp. 165-182
- The Integration of Europe has been actively discussed since the end of World War II. The European Coal and Steel Community was established in 1952. The European Economic Community and European Atomic Energy Community were created in 1958. These three agencies were integrated into the European Community in 1967.
The European integration was not successful in the 1970’s because of the conflict of interests of member countries and the delay of decision-making which was caused by the requirements of unanimity in voting in European Council of Ministers.
The economic integration of the European Community began to be rediscussed in the 1980"s in order to solve economic difficulties the member counties were facing. In 1987 the Single European Act became effective and the European single market was formed in Januray 1993. The European single market integrated 12 member countries into one market, which aimed at the removal of physical, technical and financial barriers. The European Community has been pursuing three stages of European integration. The emergence of a single currency(the ECU) replacing the national currencies will complete the process of economic and monetary union.
The final step of economic integration may begin in early 1997. Any way the final stage will start in 1999 at the latest.
The political integration of Europe was less successful than economic integration. In 1987, the European Community adopted a qualified majority voting system in the decision-making process in the Council of ministers through the Single European Act. Also it extended the powers of the European Parliament by adopting a cooperation procedure between the Council of ministers and the European Parliament.
The Maastricht Treaty, adopted in 1991 and ratified in 1993, transformed the European Community into the European Union. The treaty further extended the powers of the European Parliament by giving the right of co-decision making in many areas. It offered the European Parliament a right of veto and extended a cooperation procedure between the Council of ministers and European Parliament, making the decision-making process more democratic.
The European Uinon is a very advanced international organization but it also has supranational elements, surpassing an international organization. For the time being, the European Union will take a form of confederation as Britain opposed the formation of a federal system. In a confederal system, important problems of the European Union, will be solved through the agreement of EU members. The member countries can exercise the veto power where their important national interests are involved.