S-Space Graduate School of International Studies (국제대학원) Dept. of International Studies (국제학과) 국제지역연구 국제지역연구 vol.06 (1997)
근세 일본에서 대중관광의 발달과 종교 - ‘이세마이리(伊勢まいり: 이세신궁참배)’를 중심으로
Religion and Development of Tourism in Early Modern Japan: Focusing on Pilgrimage to Ise
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 지역종합연구소
- 지역연구, Vol.06 No.1, pp. 125-142
- Contrary to the common idea that leisure was a phenomenon born from the industrial revolution, travel emerged as a form of recreation in the Tokugawa period and large number of commoners engaged in travel for enjoyment for the first time in Japanese history. In particular, tourism d eveloped in this period in close relationship with pilgrimage to major temples and shrines.
Under the Tokugawa feudal system, movement of the commoners was strictly restricted except for travel to temples and shrines and to hot springs for medical treatment. In this situation, pilgrimage provided rare opportunities for the common people to make long-distance travel leaving their residence. Mainly due to the requirements of alternate attendance (sankin kotal), major roads and other facilities for travel were well established in this period and this made travel much easier and safer than ever, too. Overcoming financial restraints by joining in a religious confraternity in which economic resources were pooled to send a number of members on pilgrimage on a periodic basis, commoners participated enthusiastically in pilgrimage. Especially, pilgrimage to Ise Shrine was a lifetime desire for most Japanese and also was the surest ground to get a travel permission.
Pilgrimage to Ise often took recreational nature. Even though the official purpose of it was visiting to and praying at the Japan"s most sacred place, it often worked as a pretext to obtain official permission to travel for recreational purpose. Existing travel diaries show that trips to hot springs, major cities such as Edo, Kyoto, and Osaka, and other major tourist spots were often included in the pilgrimage route to Ise. Also, records about the towns formed around the shrine indicate that many people visited this place more for enjoyment than for religious purpose. For these reasons, people on pilgrimage during the Tokugawa period can be said as partial tourists and pioneers in the full development of tourism in Japan.