S-Space Graduate School of International Studies (국제대학원) Dept. of International Studies (국제학과) 국제지역연구 국제지역연구 vol.06 (1997)
중국의 戶口制度와 지방주의
Hukou System and regionalism in China
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 국제지역원
- 국제지역연구, Vol.06 No.2, pp. 165-187
- Hukou System with Common Property System is one of the two main systems that support the basic Chinese socio-economic structure. It is fundementally different from the census registration which is usally employed in democratic society to figure out the population. Chinese Hukou is rather a measure that is used by the government in regulating the movement of its residents. Hukou entitles a legal right for the resident to live in a specific region with a given class standing. Every Chinese inherits from his/her parents one of: the two residential classes that are either agricultural or non-agricultural. In addition, Hukou specifies the type of the areas that he/she may stay, e. g., such as metropolitan area, medium sized city, and rural area. Without the permit from the government, movements across the area are not allowed.
Due to Hukou system and Decentralization from 1980" s, the ownership of the wealth previously owned by the state or community has been transferred to the residents of the region who actually utilize the wealth. This tends to identify the ownership of the wealth with the residents. Therefore the local provinces become "pseudo-nations" whose government cares for the benefits of its local residents while controling immigration from outside. Even in relation with other regions, they have strong incentive to put higher priority on policies that suit the needs of local residents rather than on national agenda. Since the second half of 1980"s, spread of the regionalism became a serious problem that undermines the unity of China as a whole nation.