S-Space Graduate School of International Studies (국제대학원) Dept. of International Studies (국제학과) 국제지역연구 국제지역연구 vol.07 (1998)
19세기 프랑스의 인종관과 플로베르(Flaubert)
RACISM IN FRANCE IN THE 19TH CENTURY AND FLAUBERT
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 국제지역원
- 국제지역연구, Vol.07 No.1, pp. 123-144
- The declaration of human rights resulted from French Revolution prepared theoretical and practical grounds for eliminating racial discrimination deeply rooted in the contemporary French society. However, the results were that French Revolution only suggested "ideals" of liberty, equality and fraternity and in reality racial discrimination against immigrants of other races or jews kept on existing at home, and overseas French administrators prodeeded to colonize weaker races. To solve prolonged political confusions caused by French Revolution and conflicts between classes, French politicians tried to find their ways into neighboring countries, specifically North Africa and Near Orient, and farther into Southeast Asia and South America. However, as France plunged into colonial enterprises with political aims in contrast with Great Britain who established colonial policies based on the thoroughly economical principles, she found more failures than successes.
In the meantime, French intellectual world made progresses in diverse sciences such as geography, anthropology, biology etc. and scientism and exoticism were linked together to issue important bases for racist theories. And the intellectuals including scientists and men of letters produced and reproduced the racist discourse mainly through texts, which inevitably proved to stray from the reality.
This study examines the fact that we can find the political, cultural, academic characteristics of French society in the 19th century we have seen above, in the works of Gustave Flaubert, one of the most important French authors, of that period. Above all, he treated Oriental countries in his works as a means of evading his own country. And he had limitations that he represented his own image of the Orient not the real world, mainly because he was under a great influence of his predecessors" texts and the academic mood.
But his idealistic estheticism which he sought to realize in his oriental works, for example, Salammb？, his respect for culture without ideological purposes, and his historical consciousness of circularity give us a possibility that he hoped to have a world bloomed with various kinds of cultures, regardless of their nationalities. So I think that it is not a coincidence that the colonized peoples whom France colonized accepted and even loved French culture and language without resistance, while those whom other European countries colonized resisted severely their cultures and languages.