일본의 외국인 지방자치 참가문제의 연구 - 가와사키(川崎)시의 외국인시민 대표자회의의 성립 및 운영과정을 중심으로
A Study on the Foreign Nationals’ Political Participation in Japanese Local Autonomy: A Case Study in the Birth and Processes of Kawasaki City Council of Foreign Nationals" Representative
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 국제대학원
- 국제지역연구, Vol.12 No.1, pp. 21-44
- This research aims to analyze the social and political processes in the course of formation of the council of foreign nationals" representative in the city of Kawasaki, Japan. The council was established in 1996 in order to respond to Korean residents" demands for political participation in the local election, and to solve the various livelihood problems for the "new comers" who arrived in the 1990s.
In the analysis it is confirmed that there is a patterned policy process in a way that Korean residents always demanded new policies, and in the way city government timely responded. In addition to internal variables such as demands for political participation and social problems arising from "new comers," external factors such as Japan"s ratification of the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and International Agreement on Human Rights, and Korean government"s demand for political participation in the local election were important factors in shaping the foreigners" council. Even though Japanese Constitution does not prohibit the foreigners from participating in the local election, the law of local autonomy has not yet made provision for foreigners to take part in it. Because of this legal barrier, Kawasaki city government decided to find an alternative.
In policy-making process, we found a strong policy community composed of scholars, leaders of foreigners" movement, city officials, city council member, which had promoted Kawasaki city"s internationalization policy. This policy community has functioned to actively realize the idea of the foreigners" council.
In reviewing the functions of the Kawasaki city foreigners" council, it is difficult to conclude that the foreigners" council could meet the demands of political participation presented by Korean residents. However, the council will function to widen the opportunities for new comers to solve their livelihood problems.
The Kawasaki model, unlike the removal of nationality clauses that blocked foreigners from being employed in the city government, has not been yet emulated by many other local governments except a few.