S-Space Graduate School of International Studies (국제대학원) Dept. of International Studies (국제학과) 국제지역연구 국제지역연구 vol.12 (2003)
1950년대 미국의 대아시아 정책과 ECAFE
U.S. Policy Toward Asia in 1950s and ECAFE
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 국제대학원
- 국제지역연구, Vol.12 No.2, pp. 25-46
- ECAFE; 미국의 아시아정책; ECA 원조; 봉쇄정책; 미국의 대일정책; U.S. Policy toward Asia; EGA Assistance; Containment Policy; U.S. Policy toward Japan
- The ECA assistance to South Korea and the Point Ⅳ Program in 1949 were both cancelled because of the Korean War. As a result of the Eisenhower Administration"s reduction of foreign economic assistance under the New Look policy, the American government could not implemented vigorous policies toward the Asian region.
ECAFE, established in 1947 as a committee under the United Nations, played an important role in economic cooperation in Asia. Initially, it was not easy to create an organization based on common interests among Asian countries which had had Quite different perspective and political interests. Moreover, participation of the Soviet Union and Communist China cause conflicts between (created) capitalist and socialist blocs in ECAFE (causing conflicts to arise). Nevertheless intellectuals in Asia wanted ECAFE to improve regional economic cooperation.
But the U.S. was very reluctant to assist ECAFE in the 1950s maintaining on inactive policy toward Asia in general. The Eisenhower Administration instead tried to revive Japan as a core of Asia economically. Because of the American or Japanese governments reluctance to mobilize funds for economic development, the activities of ECAFE were not successful throughout 19!:i)s. However, in 1960s, when the U.S. changed its policy toward the Third World and stressed Free World alliance beginning with the Vietnam War, ECAFE started receiving assistance from developed countries. The Asian Development Bank became a success story for ECAFE and President Johnson"s new policy.