S-Space College of Humanities (인문대학) Religious Studies (종교학과) 종교와 문화(Religion and Culture) 종교와 문화(Religion and Culture) 12호(2006)
인간 이해를 위한 "종교적 정체성"(Religious Identity) 연구의 중요성 -존 녹스의 1550년대 행적을 중심으로-
On the Significance of the Study of Religious Identity in Understanding Humanity -The Case of John Knox in the 1550s-
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 종교문제연구소
- 종교와 문화, Vol.12, pp. 73-95
- This paper argues that in order to understand humanity, the study of religious identity is not an option but rather a necessary step. Examining the case of Scottish reformer, John Knox (1514-1572), especially his multiple exiles and returns in the 1550s, I will show the tension and complexity of two different types of religious identity within the personality of Knox himself: that of prophet (or reformer) and that of priest (or pastor). In spite of the ambiguity regarding his date of birth and early education, the identity issues related to his political views and nationality have been some of the most complicated topics to be discussed among scholars. Depending on the religious positions of the scholars themselves, however, the academic world hasproduced many distorted and contradictory images of Knox. Therefore, the author attempts to interpret Know in his own context and from his point of view. Knox spent eighteen months as a galley-slave after Scottish Protestants were defeated by pro-Catholic French forces in 1547. On his release, he worked as a minister of the Church of England in Berwick, Newcastle, and London for first five years. After the death of Edward VI, he was exiled to Geneva and stayed with Calvin. He was invited to minister to the English congregations in Frankfurt and then in Geneva. Because of his theological position against rituals,he resigned. After he preached in Scotland for nine months, Knox came back to Geneva and served refugee English congregation. During this period, he produced numerous works, including Frist Blast against the Monstrous Regiment of Women (1558). He continued to communicate with the reform party in his native land and finally left for Scotland in January 1559. The reform party became much stronger during the absence of Knox. After he returned to Edinburgh in May, 1559, Knox led the Scottish Reformation. Since reformers tried to keep Scotland independent from France with the help of England, Knox negotiated with England to secure its financial and military support and completed the Reformation process after the unexpected death of Marie de Guise, the regent for the young Mary I of Scotland in June 1560. The Scottish Parliament denounced the doctrines, worship, and government of the Roman Church, and Knox produced the Confession of Faith, The First Book of Discipline, and the Book of Common Order. The Church in Scotland was reorganized on the Presbyterian tradition. According to Dawson, Knox had two different plans in Scotland and England in 1558. He wanted a gradual reformation in Scotland, but also a revolution in England. Dawson argues that Knox was not only a Scot but also an Englishman by emphasizing his long ministry with English congregations in foreign countries. But, the author objects to Dawson's theory of two Knoxes as a political reductionism. Arguing that Know has been always a Scot in spite of his long exposure to English culture and language, the author holds that the scholars should examine Knox's life and his context in light of Knox's two different types of religious identity: as a priest/pastor and as a prophet/reformer.