S-Space College of Humanities (인문대학) Religious Studies (종교학과) 종교학연구(Journal of Religious Studies) 종교학연구(Journal of Religious Studies) 27집(2008)
한국인의 찬송가 수용과 선교사들의 대응 -초기 개신교 선교 시기(1884~1919)를 중심으로-
Early Korean Christians Acceptance of and Missionaries` Response to Western Hymns
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 종교학연구회
- 종교학연구, Vol.27, pp. 187-210
- Music is regarded as one of the most important part s in religions. so new music is usually delivered when a new religion is introduced. This thesis describes the phenomenon in Korea from 1884 to 1919 when Western missionaries came to Korea to introduce Christianity, especially Protestant. The Missionaries brought hymns from European and American churches and translated them into Korean. They tried to teach the translated hymns to Koreans as part of the missionary work. However, Western music is very different from Korean music and Koreans did not accept Western hymns just as they are. First. Koreans sang the hymns changing the tunes into familiar ones. Western music uses a seven-note scale whereas Korean traditional music uses a pentatonic scale. Then, Korean believers sang unconsciously replacing the tunes of the hymns with a pentatonic scale. The Missionaries understood this problem and changed several hymn's melodies using a pent atonic scale which Koreans felt familiar with. Second, Korean Christians preferred hymns with lyrics which followed the Korean traditional rhythm.
Until the Joseon Dynasty Koreans composed the poems in trochaic eight foot w hereas Western hymns used iambic long foot . Mrs. Baird. one of the missionaries. recognized this difference in the poems and applied Korean traditional rhythm to the translated hymns and her versions were the most popular hymns among early Korean believers. Third. new hymns wer e made in Korean churches using Korean traditional melody.
Contrafactum is one of the ways to attach new words to existing melodies. Koreans and missionaries made new hymns as contrafactum using Korean folk songs. These hymns were not regarded as established forms. but Korean Christians widely used them to praise God. In conclusion. early Koreans Christia ns modified the translated hymns which the missionaries had introduced. They did not proceed to compose their own hymns but they partly succeeded in modifying the hymns to suit Korean traditions. These transformed hymns are st ill widely used in Korean Churches and help Koreans to express their faith.