S-Space College of Dentistry/School of Dentistry (치과대학/치의학대학원) Dept. of Dentistry (치의학과) Journal Papers (저널논문_치의학과)
Leicoteipoic acid partially contributes the inflammatory response to E. faecalis
- Kum, Kee-Yeon; Baik, Jung Eun; Ryu, Young Hee; Han, Ji Young; Im, Jintaek; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Lee, Kangseok; Han, Seung Hyun
- Issue Date
- JOURNAL OF ENDODONTICS 2008;34:975-982.
- Apical periodontitis; Enterococcus faecalis; innate immunity; lipoteichoic acid; Toll-like receptor
- Enterococcus faecalis, a pathogenic gram-positive bacterium, is closely related to refractory apical periodontitis. Because lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is considered a major virulence factor of gram-positive bacteria, in the present study, highly pure LTA from E. faecalis was prepared, and its ability to stimulate murine macrophages was investigated in comparison with those of the killed whole cells. Upon exposure to E. faecalis LTA, RAW 264.7 (a murine macrophage cell line) produced a significantly (p < 0.05) high level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) in a concentration-dependent manner. It is to note that the LTA was able to stimulate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) but not TLR4. Concomitantly, LTA enhanced the DNA-binding activity of a transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), which plays an important role in the transcriptional activation of genes encoding inflammatory mediators. In contrast, heat-killed E. faecalis stimulated both TLR2 and TLR4, whereas the killed E. faecalis whole cells induced significant (p < 0.05) levels of TNF-α and NO in RAW 264.7 cells as their LTA did. These results suggest that LTA partially contributes to E. faecalis–induced inflammatory responses.
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