S-Space College of Engineering/Engineering Practice School (공과대학/대학원) Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering (화학생물공학부) Journal Papers (저널논문_화학생물공학부)
Effects of Pd activation on the self annealing of electroless copper deposition using Co(II)-ethylenediamine as a reducing agent
- Lee, Chang Hwa; Kim, Jae Jeong
- Issue Date
- American Vacuum Society
- Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures 23(2), 475-479
- copper; electroless deposition; catalysis; palladium; particle size; surface roughness; integrated circuit manufacture; interconnections
- We investigated the effect of Pd activation on self-annealing in electroless Cu deposits using
CosIId–ethylenediamine as a reducing agent. The size and population of Pd particles were controlled
by Pd ion concentration and activation time, which resulted in changes in the sheet resistances.
While the low population of Pd particles s,109 cm−2d was unable to create completely continuous
Cu film in subsequent electroless deposition and induced high film resistivity due to the voids, Pd
particles that were over 20 nm in diameter increased the resistivity by raising the surface roughness
of the Cu film. The optimal Pd activation condition was with Pd particle density of 1.73
3109 cm−2 with 14 nm diameters. The resistivity of the Cu film in the optimal activation condition
decreased to 2.46 mV cm. The deposited Cu film showed a low resistivity and a strong Cu s111d
texture with the decrease in size and increase in the number of the Pd particles.
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