S-Space Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies (규장각한국학연구원) Korean Culture (한국문화) Korean Culture (한국문화) vol.32 (2003)
英祖의 大報壇 증수와 明 三皇의 享社
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
- 한국문화, Vol.32, pp. 181-215
- During the late Chosun dynasty period, the Daebo-dan(大報壇) Altar was the symbol of the Chosun public's sense of Superiority (not replacing but) succeeding the rightful Chinese dynasties(朝鮮中華主義). The Daebo-dan altar was first constructed in 1704 during the reign of King Sukjong, in order to enshrine and honor the Ming emperor Shinjong(神宗) who dispatched troops to help the Chosun dynasty which was embroiled in a conflict with the Japanese who invaded Chosun in 1592. Then the altar was renovated during King Yeongjo's reign, and in 1749, the altar was enlarged to make room for additional enshrinements of other Ming emperors such as the dynasty founder Taejo(太祖) and the last emperor Euijong(毅宗). The royal seats and chairs(神座‧神榻) were also newly designed with a feature abiding by appropriate royal codes for the Emperors and the Empire. The enlargement of the altar and the enshrinements of Ming emperors were met by rather severe criticism launched by the vassals. But King Yeongjo himself was intent on solidifying his role as the legitimate successor of Chinese Superiority through arranging memorial services for the three Ming emperors. He wanted to become an embodiment of a loyal citizen, abiding by moral obligations toward the great Ming dynasty. The concept of loyalty toward the grand Ming was realized through several governmental policies, such as King Hyojong's declaration of vengeance and the creation of the Mandong-myo(萬東廟) shrine, or the construction of the Daebo-dan altar during King Sukjong's reign. The concept also served as the backbone of a primary ideology shared by the Noron(老論) faction members in their securing a superior position inside the political arena. Yet then, through renovating the Daebo-dan altar, King Yeongjo was trying to seize an opportunity to newly define the leading authority of the King as the leader of such loyal mentality which was firmly maintained during the reigns of Kings Hyojong and Sukjong. He was trying to turn the tides among political parties, taking an offensive position for the first time against the Noron faction members, who had seized the government and led the said mentality long since the era of Song Shi Yeol.