S-Space Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies (규장각한국학연구원) Korean Culture (한국문화) Korean Culture (한국문화) vol.33 (2004)
潛谷 金堉(1580~1658)의 學風과 ‘時勢’ 認識
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
- 한국문화, Vol.33, pp. 147-176
- During the early 17th century, the Chosen society was facing the aftermath of two devastating wars that had broken out respectively in the Imjin year and the Byeongja year. The society was struggling to overcome it. yet restoring the very foundation of the country, and also healing the psychological impact, that a shameful defeat to barbarious invaders have brought to the Choseon people, was not an easy task. The Scholar-officials were to oversee and supervise the process.
Jamgok Kim Yuk (1580-1658) was one of such scholar-official. He was determined to stabilize the general public's ordinary lives, and worked for that goal throughout his entire life.
The academic heritage that continued throughout his family line, from Kim Shik(金湜/his Great-great grandfather) through Kim Deok Su(金德秀/Great grandfather). Kim Bi(金棐/Grandfather). Kim Gweon(金權/Granduncle) and his own father Kim Heung Wu(金興宇), was what defined Kim Yuk's academic traits and color in their early stages of development.
Also, the surrounding environment provided him with glimpses of the Geungi/近畿 area Dohak/道學 studies, which were the central studies of the Gimyo Sarim/己卯士林 members and other scholars such as Seong Hon/成渾 and Baek In Geol/白仁傑 Other figures who had an important influence upon Kim Yuk's studies included Cho Ho Ik/曺好益 and Yun Geun Su/尹根壽 Through them. Kim Yuk was introduced to new philosophical trends, such as Sang-Su-hak(象數學) or theories regarding Traditional literature of the Chinese Chin-Han era(秦漢古文論) that have started to receive substantial attention in the capital area since the late 16th century.
Influenced by all these factors. Kim Yuk developed a very practical sense and point of view in devising his own academic theories intended to remedy certain social problems and eventually better the society(經世論). His academic traits were criticized by scholars of the San-dang/山黨 party members like Kim Jib/金集 or Song Shi Yeol/宋時烈. for being overly utilitarian(‘功利’) or even for undermining the principals that should be abided by at any cost (in other words, for bordering upon an act of 'Paedo/(覇道)’ In response. Kim Yuk blamed such members for merely adhering to shallow literature(浮文) without any real substance. He strongly criticized their ways of understanding traditional Chinese philosophy texts such as 『Daehak/大學』 and 『Jungyong/中庸』 and he also criticized their attitude of doggedly emphasizing concepts like Sincere thoughts (試意). Correcting one's own mentality(正心). and the Universality of the orders of Heaven(天理) in a 'dogmatic' fashion. As an alternative, he suggested the underrated importance of 「Noneo/論語」 and 『Hyogyeong/孝經』 that had been deemed very important as a basis for the theory of traditional monarchism during the Chinese Han(漢) era.