S-Space Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies (규장각한국학연구원) Korean Culture (한국문화) Korean Culture (한국문화) vol.43 (2008)
張載의 氣一元論과 任聖周의 氣一分殊說
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
- 한국문화, Vol.43, pp. 161-172
- In this study, my aim was to clarify the connection between the historical circumstances of the late Choson period and various Qi-based philosophies of the time--which perhaps can be traced to the philosophical framework of Zhang Zai 張載(1020-1077)--by analyzing the dual characteristic of the Qi -based philosophies. In order to set out on these objectives, my methodology was to engage in a comparative analysis of the thought (and respective conceptions of “ Qi ”) of 18th and 19th century scholars who developed Qi -centered philosophies--namely, Im Seong-ju 任聖周. Im Seong-ju comes to have doubts on his previous position supporting the theory of the identity between human nature and the nature of things. After silently reflecting hard on the matter for well over ten years, Im ends up supporting the position of the Nakha School concerning the question of the identity of human nature and that of things on the level of the pure original state of the heart-mind before the “feelings” 情 are aroused 心之未發純善; however, in his theory of the original nature 性 he changes his position to encompass the theory of the non-identity of human nature and the nature of things 人物性相異論. In order to maintain consistency in the arguments in his theory of the nature of the heart-mind, Im criticizes both the Nakha and the Hoso 湖論 Schools, and comes to re-examine the theory of “ li openly penetrating in all aspects, and Qi being confined (in space and time)” 理通氣局論. Here Im lays down a new definition of Chang Tsai’s conception of Qi as “all-pervasive, one, clear and void” 湛一淸虛, and pushing the definition to its logical conclusion, arrives at the theory claiming “ Qis one and its manifestations many” 氣一分殊, thus threatening the very framework of neo-Confucianism.