S-Space Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies (규장각한국학연구원) Korean Culture (한국문화) Korean Culture (한국문화) vol.48 (2009)
조선후기 간척지의 소유와 운영
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
- 한국문화, Vol.48, pp. 45-71
- Jinhyul-cheong(賑恤廳) began to proclaim the tideland from 1720 between Ansan and Incheon County to procure a new fund and established Seokjang-dun(石場屯), which was large farm of more than 50 gyeols(結)(about 200 hectares). Jinhyul-cheong was a government agency in charge of distributing food and grain seeds during the years of bad harvest.
Jinhyul-cheong collected people in the earthworks to make rice field, and gave them land ownership in proportion to their labor and capital investment. Instead, Jinhyul-cheong levied 40 dus(斗)[1 du is approximately 18 litters] of polished rice (or 100 dus of rough rice) per gyeol. Such a tax was heavier than in the case of private land which had to pay 23 dus of polished rice per gyeol , but was almost a half compared to the case of the royal family or the state organs, on which were levied more than 80 dus of polished rice (or 200 dus of rough rice). The reclaimers were afforded with landownership at their free disposal, but remained discriminated by the higher level of land tax.
Analysing Seokjang-dun Terrier in 1755, reclaimers belonging to the ruling class could acquire new land 2~4 times to the common people. Nevertheless, the common peoples’ active participation in reclamation works and their acquisition of land therein shows the development of private landownership in Joseon period.
Especially the appended tax levying notes in 1884, 1888 and 1894, shows that the accumulation of land by the landowners were much bigger than in the 18th century. From this fact, we can assume the reinforcement of landownership aiming at the grain trade in the rear area of the Incheon open port.