브라질의 권력구조와 정치과정의 특성
The Nature of Brazilian Power Structure and Political Process

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김현창; 정진영
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서울대학교 라틴아메리카연구소(SNUILAS)
Revista Iberoamericana, Vol.2, pp. 3-29
Politics shapes the pattern of development. Admiting this fact, we can

find that there has been a conspicuous lack of concern in the existing literature

with the role of the political in explaining the developmental trajectory

of the Brazilian political economy. This paper attempts to fill this

gap by providing a systematic discussion of major characteristics of Brazilian

politics with a special focus on the power structure and political


At first, the authors delineate the context of Brazilian politics. The pattern

of Brazilian politics has been influenced by the vastness of the country's

size and its consequence upon the low level of national integration;

by the very fact that Brazil is a "country of contrast"; and by the continuing

heavy influence of colonial heritage. In this context, Brazilian

power structure and political process have been determined by four major

factors: the formation of major political forces and power relations among

them; the structure of ideological conflict; the development of political institutions

and the rule of the political game; and the influence of external


After discussing the foundations of Brazilian politics, the authors identify

and discuss 7 major characteristics of Brazilian power structure and

political process. ① The basic framework of contemporary Brazilian politics

was formed during the first Vargas era(l930-45). ② Traditional political institutions remain very powerful, having a great influence on the

allocation of political power in the Brazilian society. ③ There has been a

lack of development of political parties and the party system. ④ Personalistic

politics is still prevalent with some major leaders playing the determining

role in the process and outcome of the Brazilian political game. ⑤

Any of the Brzilian political parties or forces, even any coalition among

them, can impose a stable rule over the Brazilian society through the

process of open politics, the result of which is the very existence of continuing

political uncertainties and crises. ⑥ There has been a long tradition

of military intervention in the Brazilian political process. ⑦ The lack

of the development of rational bureaucratic institutions in Brazil is conspicuous

with its negative consequence upon the state's effectiveness in dealng with socioeconomic problems. As a way of conclusion the authors deal with the prospect of political

development in Brazil and point out the obstacles which stand on the way.
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College of Humanities (인문대학)Institute of Latin American Studies (라틴아메리카연구소)Revista Iberoamericana (이베로아메리카연구)Revista Iberoamericana (이베로아메리카연구) vol.02 (1991)
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