S-Space College of Education (사범대학) Center for Educational Research (교육종합연구원) SNU Journal of Education Research SNU Journal of Education Research vol.04 (1994)
The Implementation of Standards-Based Geography Education in the United States
- Hill, A. David
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 교육종합연구원
- SNU Journal of Education Research, Vol.4, pp. 49-65
- It has been 10 years since A Nation at Risk (National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983) set the United States off on a course to address the "mediocrity" of its public schooling. Seeking to promote systemic change, this "excellence" movement of educational reform (e.g., Finn, 1991) now struggles to stay the course despite competing economic, social, and political agendas. Suffice it to say, the goal of educational excellence has yet to be attained. Political and social debates set excellence against equity. The excellence movement pushes to assure an "internationally competitive" citizenry, sometimes arguing for private competition to prod the public education system. The equity movement fears that the excellence strategy will leave many children behind (e.g., Viadero, 1993) and demands resources to create opportunities to learn for disadvantaged students. (With the political rhetoric, perfectly good words became codewords, e.g., "excellence" and "equity" came to be associated with right and left wing thought, respectively, thus obscuring much of the complexity of the issues.) The Clinton Administration negotiated between these two positions, and in April, 1994, Congress passed the education bill, the Goals 2000: Educate America Act, which carries forward from the Bush Administration several reforms, the most important of which in my view is standards-based education (SBE).