조선 후기 응원·인균파의 활동: 응원, 인균, 삼인
Monk sculptors of the Eungwon-Ingyun school in the late Joseon Dynasty: Eungwon, Ingyun, and Samin

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서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
한국문화, Vol.52, pp. 219-249
Eungwon-Ingyun SchoolEungwonIngyunSaminmonk sculptorlate Joseon Dynasty
조선 후기 불교 조각사 연구는 그 이전 어느 시기의 조각사 연구 방법과 달리 조각승 또는 조각승 유파에 대한 연구가 주류를 이루고 있다. 문화재청과 불교문화재연구소의 합동 조사로 진행되는 전국 사찰 일제 조사의 성과물들은 이러한 연구를 가능케 하는 가장 중요한 요소이다. 새로 발굴된 여러 자료들은 기존의 연구 성과를 보완하기도 하였으며, 새로운 해석을 필요로 하기도 하였따. 본고의 대상인 응원·인균파에 대해서는 인균을 위주로 유파 조각승들의 구성과 계보, 기년명 작품의 양식 분석 등을 정리한 논고가 이미 출간된 바 있다. 방대한 작품과 문헌 자료의 섭렵을 통해 17세기 전반 응원·인균파의 활동 상황을 일목요연하게 정리하여 세상에 새로운 유파의 존재를 알렸지만, 하나하나의 작품에 대한 세밀한 양식 분석을 통한 편년과 양식의 변천에 대해서는 다소 미흡한 점이 있었다. 그러므로 본고에서는 조각승 이름이나 제작 연대가 발견되지 않았지만 양식 분석을 통하여 응원·인균파의 작품으로 새로이 비정한 작품들을 추가하여, 응원, 인균, 삼인을 이어진 응원·인균파 조각승들의 작풍 변화에 따른 시기 구분과 계통을 세밀하게 구축함으로써, 응원·인균파 조각승 유파의 전모를 확연히 밝히고자 하는 것이다.

The Eungwon-Ingyun School played an active part in creating Buddhist sculptures at the south -east area of Jeolla province in the early-mid 17th century and was one of the most important schools in Jeolla area like Wono school, Beopryeong school, Muyeom school in the early 17th century, Unhye school, Saeknan school in the late 17th century. The Eungwon-Ingyun School consisted of the master sculptors Eungwon, Ingyun, Samin and assistant sculptors Gahan, Sasun, Seoksam, Sangui, Jagyeong. It was organized in the early 1620s under the leadership of Eungwon and Ingyun and was led by Eungwon in 1620s, Ingyun between 1630s and 1650s, and Samin after 1650s. They created 20 sets or 39 pieces of statues. And the statues made by them had common distinctive features. All of the statues revealed the bodies under heavy clothes, and the clothes on the pedestal were waved like flowing water.

Ingyun, creating the almost of all statues of his school, made his distinctive style after studying the style of his predecessor or teacher, Eungwon. His works of art can be divided up into four stages of period by style. The first stage of the Ingyun style was in the early 1630s. The statues made in this period had voluminous faces and bodies, and the sides of their faces were vertical and the bottom of the chins were horizontal. The folds of the draperies were rhythmic. Especially there was a unique expression of wrinkled drapery like waves on the top of the pedestal. The second stage of the Ingyun style was in the late 1630s. The statues of this period had more voluminous chicks and broad chins in faces. The third stage was in 1640s. Faces of statues of this period thinner than former stage, but cheeks were broader and chubbier than former stage too. The fourth stage was in 1650s. The statues of this period had features such as long and thin faces, round chin, small build.
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Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies (규장각한국학연구원)Korean Culture (한국문화) Korean Culture (한국문화) vol.52 (2010)
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