S-Space College of Humanities (인문대학) Institute of Latin American Studies (라틴아메리카연구소) Revista Iberoamericana (이베로아메리카연구) Revista Iberoamericana (이베로아메리카연구) vol.22 no.01/02 (2011)
멕시코의 산림정책과 삼림자원의 이용
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 라틴아메리카연구소(SNUILAS)
- Revista Iberoamericana, Vol.22 No.1, pp. 183-210
- Forests; Deforestation; Environmental Policy; Mexico; Forestry Preservation; 산림; 벌채; 환경정책; 멕시코; 산림보호
- The forest-land ownership system of Mexico distinguished by
communal forests is very unique in the world. About 80 percent of the total
forests in Mexico are possessed and managed by ejidos or comunidades
agrarias. Considering the size of forested areas, their economic benefits cannot
be satisfactorily achieved until now. The forests have been continuously
destroyed rapidly. Main reasons for deforestration are unstable and inefficient
Mexican forestry policy, rural poverty, and socioeconomic inequality.
So far, the Mexican forestry policy aims at reducing rural poverty and offering
opportunities for employment by permitting lumber production in the
communities rather than preserving forest resources and environment.
Therefore, the Mexican government has continuously announced various
policies whenever necessary in political terms. In many cases, the enactment of
laws has been made by political decisions with little concerns for the
preservation and utilization of forest resources. Frequently, new policy is only a
revision of old policy, which is not good to generate a significant effect.
The Mexican forestry regime clearly shows that the system of communal forests
and proper policies can compete in the market and bears socioeconomic and
ecological benefits despite various difficulties. The Mexican forestry policy can
partially help create jobs and increase income in the mountainous rural and
indigenous communities suffering from chronic extreme poverty and high
employment rate. Some communities have secured the ownership of forests
and earned income from forest resources. Recently the emergence of
community forest enterprises can provide new economic and ecological opportunities to maintain alternative form of sustainable development.
However, the Mexican government has failed to include rural dwellers in their
forestry policy because of its efforts to protect the interests of lumber
companies. Forests, namely common lands, have been substantially controlled
by the government. Therefore, both the government and local communities are
excessively preoccupied with economic benefits. The government permitted or
condoned deforestation to provide jobs to peasants or indigenous people living
in relatively isolated mountainous areas and villagers frequently fell trees
following their economic and political interests. Nevertheless we can be sure
that communal management of forests can be very efficient in protecting
forests, maintaining biological diversity and reducing poverty in the community.