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멕시코의 산림정책과 삼림자원의 이용

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Authors
주종택
Issue Date
2011-05-15
Publisher
서울대학교 라틴아메리카연구소(SNUILAS)
Citation
Revista Iberoamericana, Vol.22 No.1, pp. 183-210
Keywords
ForestsDeforestationEnvironmental PolicyMexicoForestry Preservation산림벌채환경정책멕시코산림보호
Abstract
The forest-land ownership system of Mexico distinguished by

communal forests is very unique in the world. About 80 percent of the total

forests in Mexico are possessed and managed by ejidos or comunidades

agrarias. Considering the size of forested areas, their economic benefits cannot

be satisfactorily achieved until now. The forests have been continuously

destroyed rapidly. Main reasons for deforestration are unstable and inefficient

Mexican forestry policy, rural poverty, and socioeconomic inequality.

So far, the Mexican forestry policy aims at reducing rural poverty and offering

opportunities for employment by permitting lumber production in the

communities rather than preserving forest resources and environment.

Therefore, the Mexican government has continuously announced various

policies whenever necessary in political terms. In many cases, the enactment of

laws has been made by political decisions with little concerns for the

preservation and utilization of forest resources. Frequently, new policy is only a

revision of old policy, which is not good to generate a significant effect.

The Mexican forestry regime clearly shows that the system of communal forests

and proper policies can compete in the market and bears socioeconomic and

ecological benefits despite various difficulties. The Mexican forestry policy can

partially help create jobs and increase income in the mountainous rural and

indigenous communities suffering from chronic extreme poverty and high

employment rate. Some communities have secured the ownership of forests

and earned income from forest resources. Recently the emergence of

community forest enterprises can provide new economic and ecological opportunities to maintain alternative form of sustainable development.

However, the Mexican government has failed to include rural dwellers in their

forestry policy because of its efforts to protect the interests of lumber

companies. Forests, namely common lands, have been substantially controlled

by the government. Therefore, both the government and local communities are

excessively preoccupied with economic benefits. The government permitted or

condoned deforestation to provide jobs to peasants or indigenous people living

in relatively isolated mountainous areas and villagers frequently fell trees

following their economic and political interests. Nevertheless we can be sure

that communal management of forests can be very efficient in protecting

forests, maintaining biological diversity and reducing poverty in the community.
ISSN
1598-7779
Language
Korean
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10371/73841
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College of Humanities (인문대학)Institute of Latin American Studies (라틴아메리카연구소)Revista Iberoamericana (이베로아메리카연구)Revista Iberoamericana (이베로아메리카연구) vol.22 no.01/02 (2011)
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