S-Space Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies (규장각한국학연구원) Korean Culture (한국문화) Korean Culture (한국문화) vol.53/56 (2011)
18, 19세기 조선 지식인의 병세의식(幷世意識)
A Study on Byeongse(幷世, Contemporary) Consciousness of Joseon intellectuals in eighteenth century
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
- 한국문화, Vol.54, pp. 183-204
- 병세의식; 병세재언록; 병세집; 우정론; 문예공화국; 소동파 열풍; 연대의식; 동아시아; Byeongse consciousness; Byeongsejaeseonrock; friendship discourse; Republic of Letters; the fever of So Dongpa; the sense of solidarity; East Asia
- 본고는 18, 19세기 동아시아의 지식인 교류와 조선 지식인의 병세의식(井世意識) 고조(高潮) 양상을 살펴는데 목적이 있다. 병세의식은 한 세상을 ‘더불어’ 살아가고 있다는 연대(運帶)의식이다. 전 시기 상우천고(尙友千古)를 말하던 공간 중심 사유가, 당대성과 동시대성을 중시한 천애지기(天佳知己)의 시간 중심 사유로 변했다 이는 신분과 국경의 경계를 넘어, 동시대 지식인 집단 사이의 수평적 사유가 가능해 진 것을 의미한다.
최근 다카하시 히로미 교수는 『동아시아의 문예공화국』이란 자신의 저서에서 연행사와 통신사를 통한 동아시아 지식인의 교류에 주목했다. 그는 18세기 유럽의 지식 인들이 라틴어 저술을 매개로 하나의 문예공화국(Republic of Letter)을 형성해 나갔던 것처럼, 한문을 매개로 한 한중일 삼국 지식인의 교류 네트워크를 통해, 동아시아의 문예공화국 개념 적용 가능성을 타진한 바 있다. 본고는 그의 이같은 입론에 호웅하여 병세의식이란 키워드를 통해 이 논의를 좀더 확대해보려고 한다.
This paper investigated exchanges of intellectuals in East Asia from 18C to 19C and the rising types on Byeongse(幷世, contemporary) consciousness of Joseon intellectuals. Byeongse consciousness meaned the sense of solidarity living life together with each other. Thought centered on space based upon Sinocentrism of previous era changed to thought centered on time valued upon nowness and contemporariness. This indicated that horizontal thought was made possible among contemporary intellectuals beyond boundary of status and nations.
We could see Byeongse consciousness of intellectuals in this era from the word ‘Byeongse(contemporary)’ recorded repetitively in Byeongsejaeseonrock written by Lee Gyusang, Byeongsejib written by Yoon Gwangsim, Byeongsejib written by You Deukgong and etc. They were working collecting biographical writing and poetry of writers, scholars and artists living with themselves in contemporariness. They had dreamed structure of community shared only contemporariness leaping status and transcending national boundary. This expanding of horizontal thought couldn’t be accept in the very previous era.
Friendship discourse and changed awareness and countermeasures on others broadened in a comtemporary were buried in the base of the changing of consciousness. This changes were based upon that East Asia located in road of severance entered into road of the open and that closed thought of nationalism transferred into open thought. The flow started from 18C and continued to 19C created noticeable prosperity.
Afterward private networks among intellectuals were formed and seeped with responds of surrounding people and then they expanded wide of understandings and changed frames of thought. Through this, we become to see the possibility of East Asia Republic of Letters carried with Classical Chinese. Interchange knowledge based upon remote closing friend(天涯知己) and Byeongse consciousness dreamed by them more activated in China at 19C. That was the fever of So Dongpa through interchange between Chu Sa Kim Jeonghee and Ong Banggang. In the other hand, interchange knowledge was stopped by severance of journey of Tongsinsa(the delegation to Japan).