S-Space College of Medicine/School of Medicine (의과대학/대학원) Internal Medicine (내과학전공) Journal Papers (저널논문_내과학전공)
Clinical features of acute renal failure associated with hepatitis A virus infection
- Jung, Y. J.; Kim, W.; Jeong, J. B.; Kim, B. G.; Oh, K. -H.; Lee, H. -S.; Kim, Y. J.; Yoon, J. -H.; Lee, K. L.
- Issue Date
- JOURNAL OF VIRAL HEPATITIS; Vol.17 9; 611-617
- Acute hepatitis A (AHA) is one of the most common infectious diseases; it is usually a self-limiting disease affecting the liver. Although extrahepatic manifestations are not common, some cases have been reported associated with acute renal failure. We reviewed the clinical features of patients with AHA complicated by acute renal failure (ARF group) and compared them with patients with noncomplicated AHA (non-ARF group). The medical records of 208 consecutive patients with AHA who were diagnosed between January 2003 and October 2008 were reviewed. We identified 15 patients (7.2%) with ARF associated with AHA. There were no differences between the ARF and non-ARF group with regard to gender and age. The peak value of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (median: 6060 IU/L vs 1792 IU/L, P < 0.001), prothrombin time (PT) (International normalized ratio, median 1.72 vs 1.10, P < 0.001), and total bilirubin level (median: 9.6 mg/dL vs 6.3 mg/dL, P = 0.04) were significantly higher in the ARF than in the non-ARF group. Twelve patients (80%) recovered completely with haemodialysis (seven patients, 46.7%) or only conservative management (five patients, 33.3%), while one patient underwent liver transplantation because of fulminant hepatic failure, and two patients died because of fulminant hepatic failure. There were no deaths among patients with noncomplicated AHA in the non-ARF group. Five patients underwent kidney biopsy; two patients were diagnosed with acute tubular necrosis, two patients with acute interstitial nephritis with IgA nephropathy and one patient with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis. All patients in the ARF group had microscopic haematuria and proteinuria (100%vs 31.1%, P < 0.001). Urine sodium levels were more than 10 mEq/L in 10 patients. The findings of high urinary sodium concentrations, microscopic haematuria and proteinuria did not support the diagnosis of hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Patients with AHA with ARF had higher ALT levels, more prolonged PTs, and higher total bilirubin levels. The prognosis for these patients was poorer than for those without ARF. However, the patients with ARF and nonfulminant AHA had recovered with proper treatment and should not be confused with patients that have HRS.
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