오키나와 나고시 야부지구의 지역개발의 실태와 전망 -토지정비과정과 농업경영의 질적 변화를 중심으로-
Actual Conditions and Prospects of the Regional Development in Yabu District of Nago City, Okinawa -Focused on the process of land rearrangement and the qualitative changes of farm management-

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서울대학교 비교문화연구소
비교문화연구, Vol.6 No.1, pp. 283-317
본 연구의 목적은 일본 오키나와현 나고시 야부(應繩縣 名護市 屋部)지구를 사례로 하여, 주로 토지정비과정에 따른 농가의 토지이용과 농업경영의 변화를 근간으로 소지역 단위에서의 지역개발의 정도를 파악함과 동시에 조사시점에서의 주민의식을 분석함으로써 향후의 방향성을 진단해 보는데 있다. 본 연구를 위하여 야부지구의 농가방문을 시작으로 연구대상 지역 내에서 개발의 정도를 직접 확인할 수 있는 장소를 크게 두 지구로 구분하여 조사함으로써, 현 시점에서의 활용도와 그에 따른 문제점을 고찰하였다. 아울러 일본의 중앙정부 오키나와현 및 나고시의 정책적인 차원에서의 지역개발계획과 단계를 파악하기 위해, 나고 시청(名護 市役所), 나고시 교육위원회, 오키나와현 북부합동청사, 얌바르(山原) 농협 나고지부 동으로부터 청취조사와 함께 관련자료를 입수하여 분석하였다.

This research investigates the results of the regional development in Yabu District which has the characteristics of both country and city. The research examines the changes of land use and agricultural management caused by the land rearrangement projects in the small area. The findings are summarized like the followings.

First, the major land-rearrangement plan can be divided into 6 projects, which have been done in Yabu since the late Meiji era. The two largest-scaled projects of them were “Land Reform" in Yabu from 1899 until 1903 and “Agricultural Land Reclamation" in Nagashiji from 1979 until 1985. The two projects contribute to the transformations of the ownership and the cultivating pattern in Yabu.

Second, the way to utilize land changed profoundly in the early 1960s. Most parts of the cultivated land in Yabu had been a paddy field before the early 1960s. Since then, however, the paddy field has changed into a sugarcane field. This change has been related to the protection policy of the government for domestic sugarcanes. The government is now trying to keep the product at a optimum supply by fixing a adequate price per ton on the sugarcane product every year.

Third, the changes of farm management in Yabu have reflected on the decrease of farm households, the shortage of successors of farmers, the gradual decrease of cultivated lands, and the fixation of commercial crops. These results can make the coexistence of country and city out of balance, and may be the reasons for developing the farming area into a city if mixed with other internal and external conditions.

Fourth, with the development it will be difficult to conserve the traditional culture because thinking ways and attitudes are different between the young and the old. The qualitative and quantitative changes of the original culture will be inevitable. But the traditional culture can be conserved for a long time if young people's life style and their thinking patterns are reflected in the evaluation and interpretation of the traditional culture.
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College of Social Sciences (사회과학대학)Institute of Cultural Studies(비교문화연구소)비교문화연구비교문화연구 vol.06 no.1/2 (2000)
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