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오키나와(沖繩諸島) 출토 고려계(高麗系)기와에 대하여
Koryö Style Roof-tiles Excavated on the Okinawa Islands

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Authors
우에하라, 시즈카
Issue Date
2001
Publisher
서울대학교 비교문화연구소
Citation
비교문화연구, Vol.7 No.1, pp. 125-158
Abstract
오키나와(沖繩諸島)에서는 “구스쿠”(グスク)시대에 해당하는 시기의 유적에서 고려계(高麗系)기와, “야마토”계(大和系)기와, 명조계(明朝系)기와라고 불리는 한국, 일본, 중국에 계보를 갖는 세 종류의 기와가 출토된다. 고려계기와란 고려의 기와제작기술에 근거를 두고 제작된 환원염소성 (還元炎燒成)의 기와군(群)이다. 암키와(平互)는 와통기법(互倚技法)으로 만들어진 것으로 볼록면에 우상타날(羽狀打捺)무늬와 타날명(打捺銘) 「계유년고려와장조(癸西年高麗瓦匠造)」, 「대천(大天)」 등이 시문되어 있다. 야마토계기와란 일본의 기와제작 기술에 바탕을 두고 만들어진 환원염소성(還元炎燒成)의 기와군으로, 막새기와(軒瓦)의 와당(瓦當)에 파문(巴文)과 당초(庸草)무늬가 새겨져 있고, 암키와에는 이형제(離型齊)와 일매조대(一校造臺)가 사용되고 있다. 명조계기와란 중국 영조 때 기와제작에 의하여 제조된 기와군으로, 와당의 무늬로 모란 등의 화문이 주로 채용되고 있다. 특히 암막새기와는 와당면이 역삼각형 모양꼴을 하고 있어 상기한 두 계통의 와당과는 다르다. 출토량이 많은 암키와는 와통(瓦筒) 사분할(四分割)의 기와이다. 이 논문에서는 세 계통의 기와 가운데 가장 일찍이 등장한 고려계기와에 대하여 현단계의 연구현황을 살펴보고자 한다.



Roof tiles produced with Koryő roof-tile techniques have been excavated from Gusuku Period (l0-13th centuries C.E.) sites on the Okinawa island group. The tiles are gray colored and have been fired in a reduction atmosphere. The tegula(wide concave under tiles) have the maker's character(Mizunototon) on them, leading to the opinion that the dates of manufacture were 1153, 1273, 1333, and 1393; however, final dating has yet to be determined.

In regards to the place of manufacture as well, opinions differ between their being imported from the Korean peninsula or produced in the Nanto Islands. At present, Koryő style roof-tiles have been excavated from forty sites centering on the main island of Okinawa and also found on the adjacent islands of Kume and Miyako in the Sakishima Island group. The central Chubu region of the main island of Okinawa is recognized as from where the most diverse and plentiful tiles have been excavated.

Currently there have been eight varieties of Koryő type roof-tile excavated including round-eaves tiles (noki-marugawara), flat-eaves tiles(noki-hiragawara), imbrex round tiles(marugarwara), tegula flat tiles(hiragawara), flat tiles with a lip on the rear encl(*yudanshiki-hiragawara), hip rafter cover tiles(sumiki-sakigawara), ridge tiles(noshi-gawara), window tiles(mado-gawara), and terminal ridge-end tiles(munazumi-kazarigawara). These can be further subdivided into thirty-two types based on shape and pattern.

When comparing the Koryő type roof-tiles found in the Okinawa Islands with those of the Korean peninsula, there are many similarities such as the antefix pattern of the eaves tiles, the molding board patterns and the bucket molding technique of impbex round tiles and tegula flat tiles. However, there are also a few differences. In comparison with Korean materials there is less variation, so perhaps one type of Koryő manufacturing technique spread to Okinawa where it was partially transformed. Note that in regards to the spread of manufacturing techniques, attempts are being made from the standpoint of historical documentary studies to interpret the spread of tiles to political factors. However, since studies have not been carried out on the archeological materials to concretely establish the relationships between the countries involved, this is a topic of future research.
ISSN
1226-0568
Language
Korean
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10371/79272
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College of Social Sciences (사회과학대학)Institute of Cultural Studies(비교문화연구소)비교문화연구비교문화연구 vol.07 no.1/2 (2001)
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