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식민지 시대 한국 가족의 변화: 1920년대 이혼소송과 이혼 사례를 중심으로
The Change of Korean Family in the Colonial Period: focusing on Divorce Cases

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Authors
권희정
Issue Date
2005
Publisher
서울대학교 비교문화연구소
Citation
비교문화연구, Vol.11 No.2, pp. 35-62
Keywords
식민지 시대Colonial period일상의 역사history of everyday life전통tradition근대modern결혼marriage가족family이혼divorce닝만적 사랑romantic love자유연애free love
Abstract
한국의 가족연구에 있어서 식민지 시대는 그 자체가 가지고 있는 역사적 무게만큼 깊이 침잠되어 있다는 느낌을 받는다. 가족 연구의 시작을 보면, 먼저 서구에서 가족은 19세기 다원의 진화론에 영향을 받아 그 제도적 • 역사적 측면이 연구되기 시작한 이래 법학, 의학, 심리학 등에서 가족에 대한 관심을 갖기 시작하였고 1920년대에는 통계학적 방법론이 도입되고 가족사회학으로 학제 안에 정착되었다. 한국에 있어서도 가족의 연구는 이와 거의 유사한 전개를 보이고 있는데, 먼저 역사학과 법학에서 가족 연구를 시작하고 있다. 먼저 사적 연구로는 삼국시대 이래 친족제도 변천의 역사적 과정을 상세히 정리하고 있는 김두헌(1948)의 『조선가족제도 연구』가 있고, 법제사적 연구로는 혼인, 이혼, 양자,상속 등에 관한 법의 역사적 변천과정을 다루는 정광현(1967) 의 『한국 가족법 연구』와 박병호(1 974)의 『한국법제사고』 등의 연구가 있다.

1970년 이후에는 역사학, 법학에 이어 인류학과 사회학 등에서 가족연구에 많은 업적을 남기고 있다 하지만 ‘가족의 역사적 변천’ 또는 ‘가족의 변화’라는 제목 하에 한국 가족의 변화를 추적하고 있는 대부분의 기존의 연구들은 대개는 조선시대 이전까지의 가족의 변화를 보는데 그치거나, 현대까지 다루고 있는 연구들은 조선시대까지를 전통사회로, 해방 이후를 근대사회로 하는 두 개의 큰 축으로 가족의 변화를 설명하고 있다. 예를 들면, 최재석(1983)은 『한국가족 제도사 연구」에서 신라와 고려의 가족, 그리고 조선시대의 친족분석에 초점을 두고 있으며, 이광규(1977)는 『한국 가족의 사적연구』에서 삼국시대의 친족체계 분석에 중점을 두고 있다. 한편 한남제(1997) 의 『한국가족 제도의 변화』에서는 가족의 전통적 구조와 기능의 변화가 해방 이후 급속한 산업화와 도시화로 시작되었음을 전제로 접근하고 있다.



Studies of family in Korean society have initiated from historical science and jurisprudence around 1950s. Since the 1970s, many academic researchers carried out by anthropologists and sociologists have been accumulated. Most of them have focused on structure or functions of the Korean family even though the researches aimed at investigating historical change or transformation of Korean family.

There has been quite strong tendency to divide Korean family into two: one is the traditional extended family, the other modem nuclear family. New themes have emerged and new approaches have been applied to family studies since 1980s. These studies analyzed relationships among family members, ideologies of family coherence, or sex roles between couples using new methodologies or theories such as psycho-anthropology or feminism Although these studies were enriched by qualitative research, it was unable to form a mainstream in academism overwhelmed by other subjects and themes. Today, issues on family start to reappear in the academic field under the circumstance of growing interest relating to individuals and their everyday life. Nevertheless, it can be said that the researches which grasp the everyday life of individual in relation to the structure of the society and understand it within the dynamics of political and historical changes have not been seen yet. In this sense, studies of family in the colonial period are still unexplored.

In this article, first of all, circumstances of the colonial period, especially focusing on 1920s, in which "family breakdown" issues were in the center of intellectuals' concerns are reviewed. Secondly, discourses on divorce in magazines and newspapers are also investigated. Third, divorce cases in the colonial period are analyzed in order to reveal the gap between discourses and reality. Finally, it is argued that the increasing divorce rates in the colonial period should not be construed that modernization of Korean family or expansion of women's rights, which resulted from the influence of the modem discourses such as free marriage, free divorce, or women's emancipation. Rather, it is socio-cultural point that shows the complicated transforming process of Korean family. In the public discourse, woman is expected to be free and independent as a human being, and all family members should be equal, but in the private discourse woman is positioned as a wife and mother who always privatize family's interests and sacrifice her own desires.

Moreover, it is agreed that there should be a distinctive sex role: men as breadwinners and women as housewives. When divorce cases are analyzed, it becomes clearer that the high divorce rate has nothing to do with the modem discourses. Most of divorce suits, which are filed by women, are not because they are empowered but are desperate to seek to survive daily life due to their husbands who are violent, imprisoned, or alcoholic. In conclusion, the Korean family in the colonial period demonstrates the dynamic changes resulting in high divorce rates but it does not necessarily mean the collapses of traditional family: the values and structure of family seem to start to take shape of modernity but the fabrics of colonial family were weaved by conventional and traditional threads.
ISSN
1226-0568
Language
Korean
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10371/79496
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College of Social Sciences (사회과학대학)Institute of Cultural Studies(비교문화연구소)비교문화연구비교문화연구 vol.11 no.1/2 (2005)
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