S-Space Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies (규장각한국학연구원) Korean Culture (한국문화) Korean Culture (한국문화) vol.61/64(2013)
고려 按察使의 연원과 ‘五道按察使’의 성립
Origin of the Anchal-sa(按察使) post in Goryeo, and the Establishment of the "5-Do Anchal-sa system(五道按察使)
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
- 한국문화, Vol.61, pp. 69-101
- 按察使; 西海巡察使; 東南海都部署使; 安撫使; 五道按察使; Anchal-sa(按察使); Seohae Sun’chal-sa(西海巡察使); Dongnam’hae-Dobu’seo-sa(東南海都部署使); Anmu-sa(安撫使); ’5-Do Anchal-sa(五道按察使)
- In this article, the institutional origin of the Goryeo dynasty Anchal-sa(按察使) magistrates which operated in the Do(道) units, and how the 5-Do Anchal-sa(五道按察使)’ system was established, are examined.
The history of the Anchal-sa institution is documented in the “An’ryeom-sa(按廉使)” section of the “Governmental Officials and Offices(百官志)” chapter of 『Goryeo-sa(高麗史)』. But this record is a combination of information gathered from several sources, and is not a correct representation of the actual Anchal-sa history. The Original name of Anchal-sa was “Sun’chal-sa(巡察使)” but it was changed to Anchal-sa in the 19th year of King Hyeonjong’s reign to avoid using the letter which was also the name of the king.
The title “Seohae Sun’chal-sa(西海巡察使)” which appears in the “Gong’cheob Sangtong-Shik(公牒相通式)” section of the “Penal Law(刑法志)” chapter refers to the Anchal-sa figure of the Seo’hae-do province(西海道按察使). The “Dong’hea Sun’chal-sa(東海巡察使)” that appears together is the same thing with the “Sun’geom-sa” figure of the Gyeongsan-do province(慶尙道巡檢使) and is also the same with the Dongnam’ hae-Dobu’seo-sa(東南海 都部署使). The function of this post was absorbed by the Gyeongsang-do province’s Anchal-sa magistrate and was abolished at the end of King Munjong’s reign. This led people to believe that the two posts were institutionally linked, but in fact they were totally unrelated.
After the provincial monitoring system expanded throughout the country and the 5 Do provinces were established, the Anchal-sa system became a dynastic one. The dispatching of “Anmu-sa(按撫使)” officials in the 2nd year of King Yejong’s reign provided a definitive platform for the establishment of Anchal-sa figures, but Chunju-do(春州道) was founded later and the ‘5-Do Anchal-sa’ system was finally launched during the reign of King Euijong.