S-Space Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies (규장각한국학연구원) Korean Culture (한국문화) Korean Culture (한국문화) vol.61/64(2013)
鄕人에서 平民으로 - 평안도 향인체제의 구조와 그 해체과정
From Hyang-in(鄕人) to Common People(平民) - The Structure and Dissolution Process of Hyang-in System in Pyeongan Province
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
- 한국문화, Vol.63, pp. 61-98
- 향인(鄕人); 평민; 국민; 향전(鄕錢); 진보회(進步會)와 일진회(一進會); 평안도; Hyang-in(鄕人); common people; citizen; Iljinhoe(進步會, pro-Japanese association); Pyeongan Province
- 이 논문은 국제고려학회(International Society for Korean Studies)가 2011년 8월 24~25일 캐나다 밴쿠버의 British Columbia 대학에서 개최한 제10차 코리아학국제학술토론회(The 10th ICKS International Conference on Korean Studies)에서 발표한 원고를 대폭 수정한 것임.
- This study aims to examine the changing aspects of the traditional autonomous society which was led by local elites Hyang-in into an administrative district established upon an equal human relations, taking Pyeongan Province as an example.
Above all I have ascertained that the ‘fifth generation Hayng-in system’ was established in each county in Pyeongan Province in the 19th century, where the fifth generation of the elites were treated as Wonhyang(原鄕);the upper group of Hyang-in. In addition, their society was expanded and reproduced by consistently enrolling new members on their roster throughout the century. Despite the persistent conflicts between old and new Hyang-in groups over social issues, the society in Pyeongan Province in the 19th century could achieve a continual expansion with new Hyang-in group under a stable leadership of Wonhyang group.
Meanwhile, the Gabo Reform of 1894 abolished the caste system and made the social classes in Joseon legally equal. The existing authority of Hyang-in was absorbed into the modern bureaucracy and the citizens who used to be a subject of control turned into a subject of administration with equal status. This study aimed to review how the institutional change influenced the reorganization of power and alteration of people’s awareness in the local society.
The changing aspects can be discovered in the collisions between the members of Iljinhoe (pro-Japanese association) and the Hyang-in group in Deokcheon county and Maengsan county in Pyeongan Province in 1905. Confronting their counterparts, the Hyang-in group recognized Hyang-in’s committee as people’s committee, Hyang-in as common people’, and Hyang-in’s opinion as public Although they lost their traditional social status in the local society, the Hyang-in group continued to obtain the status as ‘common people’ or ‘citizen’. In 1906, the Hyang-in system finally collapsed under reorganization of local government systems by the Japanese Residency-General. Thereafter they could not take the self-awareness of people as a citizen. The common people of the local society became either ‘people without nation’ or ‘subject of Japanese Empire’.