Browse

朝鮮 成宗의 右文政治와 그 귀결
The “Wumun” Politics(右文政治) of the Joseon King Seongjong(成宗), and the results

Cited 0 time in Web of Science Cited 0 time in Scopus
Authors
송웅섭
Issue Date
2013-06
Publisher
서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원
Citation
규장각, Vol.42, pp. 1-41
Keywords
성종언관우문정치왕권도덕적 권위정치적 위계도덕적 위계Seongjongremonstrance officerWumun politics(politics supporting civil governance)king’s powermoral authoritypolitical hierarchymoral hierarchy
Abstract
본고는 왕권과 도덕적 권위 사이에 갈등이 빚어지는 양상을 성종의 右文政治를 통해서 살펴보려는 목적 하에 기획되었다. 성종은 재위 기간 동안 성실히 經筵에 임하고 正學과 이단의 분별을 명확히 하며 조선의 국정이 성리학에 기초해야 함을 천명하고 있었다. 또한 성종은 대간의 언론을 우용하고 홍문관이 언관화 되는 과정에서도 우호적인 태도를 보이는 등 유교적 왕도정치를 적극적으로 추구하고 있었다. 성종의 이 같은 태도에 힘입어 그의 치세는 세조대나 예종대에 비해 훨씬 더 안정적인 정치 운영이 이루어질 수 있었다. 하지만 15세기 후반의 상황에서 군왕이 성실한 學人의 면모를 견지하며 언관들에게 호의적인 태도를 보이는 정치 운영 방식은 새로운 부담을 갖게 되는 것이기도 했다. 즉 누가 더 公的 가치에 근거하고 있는가를 놓고 국왕이 신료들과 경쟁하는 위치에 놓이게 됨으로써, 강압적으로 신료들을 제압하던 군주들에 비해 국정 장악력이 약화되는 측면이 없지 않았다. 다시 말해서 대간과 홍문관이 公論을 통해 국정 전반에 대한 영향력을 확대시켜 가고, 다양한 언론관행들을 조성해 가며 군주의 자의적인 정치 운영에 제동을 걸고 있었을 뿐더러, 성리학에 기초한 수사들을 통해 이 같은 언론 활동을 정당화시키고 있던 상황에서, 왕도정치의 추구와 정학의 수호를 천명하고 있던 성종으로서는, 그리고 강압적인 방식으로 신료들을 제압하지 않는 국정 운영을 고수하고 있었던 성종으로서는, 階序的 권력질서 및 是非 주도권의 약화를 용인할 수밖에 없는 난처한 입장에 놓이게 되었던 것이다. 따라서 성종의 치세는 비교적 안정된 정치가 이루어지고는 있었지만 도덕적 위계를 강조하며 자신들의 입장을 강변하는 언관들과 정치적 위계를 앞세우며 통치력을 발휘하려는 국왕 사이에 지속적인 갈등 관계가 조성되면서 점차 대립의 정도가 심화되어 가고 있던 시기였다고 할 수 있겠다.
Examined in this article, is the conflict between the political power of the king’s throne and the moral authority argued by the officials, through an analysis of the Joseon king Seongjong’s “Wumun” politics(右文政治), which was a policy of ‘Promoting Civil politics.’

King Seongjong was always diligent in attending the Gyeong’yeon/經筵 classes and had clear perspective of what was right(正學) and what was wrong(異端). He always believed that the governance of Joseon should be based upon Neo-Confucianism. He also heard well of his remonstrance officers’ counsel, and was supportive of the fact that the Hongmun-gwan office turning into an office of expostulation. He was clearly pursuing a Confucian ideal way of politics, and due to his devotion to Confucian politics, the governance of his reign was much more stable than those of kings Sejo and Yejong.

But in the latter half period of the 15th century, the king’s assuming of the role of a diligent student(學人), and maintaining a friendly relationship with the expostulation officials, presented another challenge to the king. It put the king in a new position where the king would be asked or at least expected to compete with the officials over the issue of who is more equipped with a public and fair set of values. Compared to the days of the kings who were able to control the officials with brute political force, this new model of a king would be exposed to a new kind of vulnerability of not being able to do just that.

In other words, the Dae’gan remonstrance officers and the Hongmun-gwan office were expanding their influences upon the overall government by spreading the public opinion(公論). They created new practices concerning public opinions and consensus, and by doing so were becoming a barrier to the king’s supposedly arbitrary ruling of the country. They also justified their actions with Neo-Confucian sentiments and arguments. King Seongjong, who was determined to pursue the ideal way for the king and also to protect the just form of studies, was determined to not ‘control’ the officials in any oppressive way, and was put in an awkward position of being forced to admit that his status in the hierarchy, as well as the authority of his voice in the matter of what is right and wrong, was compromised to a certain level.

Seongjong’s reign was a stable one, but there was a tension building up between the kings who needed political control and the officials who argued their moral superiority. That tension was destined to spin out of control.
ISSN
1975-6283
Language
Korean
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10371/84174
Files in This Item:
Appears in Collections:
Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies (규장각한국학연구원)규장각규장각 (奎章閣) vol.42/43 (2013)
  • mendeley

Items in S-Space are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

Browse