S-Space College of Humanities (인문대학) Institute for Russian, East European & Eurasian Studies (러시아문화권연구소) 러시아연구 (Russian Studies) 러시아연구 Volume 10 Number 1/2 (2000)
볼셰비키의 노동규율화 정책 (1918-1920)
Bolshevik ’ s policy of labor discipline(1918-1920)
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 러시아연구소
- 러시아연구, Vol.10 No.1, pp. 243-264
- After the 1st world war, the Soviet Russia confronted a economic crisis, partly from the revolution and the civil war, and partly from the Western Powers' intervention and blockades. Her economic crisis, related with the industrial situation, mainly resulted from two factors; reduction of working population and decline of labor productivity. The Bolsheviks, in order to secure labor force, imposed comprehensive disciplines to all labor population available, and, for raising the productivity of labor, introduced some renovations like bonus system. But this kind of physical incentive system on productivity must have had the 'limit from the beginning in their poor economic situation. And the Bolsheviks had to perform harsh labor related rules simultaneously.
This article deals with how the labor obligations and disciplines which had been introduced for securing laborers and for raising productivity was imposed and reinforced in the civil-war situation, especially in the light of labor-related legislation, the party leaders' viewpoint, each organ’s activity - that is the trade union’s - and punishments over every kind of violation.
The Bolsheviks pushed forward harsh labor legislation. They concentrated all their efforts in the reconstruction of industrial production. They did this through the so-called “"Glavikism", meaning the centralized organization and controls of industrial activity, rigid labor rules, watches and controls through “"the comrade court", organization of labor forces and all kinds of punishments - wage cut, break of food rationing, dismissal, slave labor, imprisonment and so on. Also, in the field of economy and administration, they steamlined all directions of authority in the military fashion. The reason is that the fate of the newborn Bolsheviks depended entirely on whether they .overcame the civil war situation and how soon they revived the bankrupt economic situation. To survive the double war, the Bolsheviks had to tighten control of labors, under the name of labor policy.