S-Space College of Humanities (인문대학) Institute for Russian, East European & Eurasian Studies (러시아문화권연구소) 러시아연구 (Russian Studies) 러시아연구 Volume 16 Number 1/2 (2006)
‘소비에트 인간형’의 창조 - 네프기 ‘신체문화’ 정책을 중심으로
Creation of New Soviet Type of Men: Examination on the Policy Relating to Physical Culture during the NEP
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 러시아연구소
- 러시아연구, Vol.16 No.1, pp. 213-243
- This paper deals with the policy of Soviet regime that attempted to create new Soviet type of men essential to the consolidation for the socialist state during the NEP. Among the various measures of the Soviet government for creating them, it especially pays attention to the policy relating to 'physical culture', which implied not only physical activities of each person but also composite value system for everyday lives. As the meaning of the physical culture extended to enhancing the socialist consciousness as well as to encouraging the physical activities, there were serious debates among the party leadership on the feasible way to create new Soviet men by spreading the physical culture. Those who had utilitarian thoughts on it argued that ordinary people in the Soviet society were not fond of taking part in the leasure composed of strolling about in the wood and mass athletics. According to their conception, workers on the bench were rather enthusiastic in seeing the team competition and therefore the policy of physical culture should not just be confined to the pure ideology separated from actual lives. On the contrary, the hard liners on the cultural policy thought that if the party accepted the competitive sports culture and gave up the comprehensive implications of the physical culture the socialist system would be imbued with bourgeois culture that just respected the ability of the few talented sportsmen.The party resolution of 1925 tried to resolve these conflicting attitudes as to the policy of the physical culture. It recognized the necessity of approving the taste of ordinary Soviet citizen, whereas at the same time it
attempted to maintain the orientation of hard liners in the matter of cultural policy. In that context, by examining the policy of the physical culture we can ascertain that the NEP was a period of precarious balance between the utilitarians and hard liners. By the time of Stalin’s ascendency in the power relationship, that unstable balance began to break down and the policy of physical culture was in the process of rapid transformation.