러시아어 "что за 구문"의 통시적 발전
The Diachronic Development of the Russian čto za Construction

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서울대학교 러시아연구소
러시아연구, Vol.21 No.1, pp. 135-156
본 논문은 예문 (1)과 같은 러시아어의 소위 “что за 구문”의 통시적 발전을재구성하고 이를 토대로 하여 그 통사적 구조를 밝히는 것을 목적으로 한다. (1) a. Что за книжку ты читаешь?1) what:acc za book:acc you read 너는 지금 도대체 어떤 종류의 책을 읽고 있는 거니? b. Что за ерунда! what:nom za nonsense:nom 이런 말도 안 되는 것 같으니라구! 예문 (2)에서 보듯 러시아어 что за 구문은 슬라브어족 뿐 아니라 게르만 및 발트어족에서도 관찰되는 범언어학적 현상이다. 이 구문의 공통된 특징으로는, 먼저 (i) 통사적으로 what(что, was, kas)과 for(за, fur, par)에 해당하는 어휘적 요소들이 결합하여 수식 어구를 이루어 명사를 수식하고, (ii) “(도대체) 어떤 종류의, 혹은(도대체) 어떤(따라서, 영어 which, 독일어 welcher

This paper examines diachronic developments of the so-called čto za construction, which has not been accorded a due attention as compared to the equivalent expressions in Germanic languages.

First of all, I propose that the čto za phrase started out as a small clause, where a predication relationship among its members are established by a preposition-based predicator za. Under this assumption, one can account for the peculiar syntax(case-inertness of za) and non-compositional semantics(‘what kind of…’ reading out of {what, for, NP}) of the construction in a principled manner. In the course of discussion, I challenge Danylenko’s(2001) proposal to find an analogue of this preposition-like element in the expression vyjti zamuž ‘get married’, with a claim that za in zamuž is not a predicator, but a preposition with its inherent directional semantics.

Another claim that follows from the first one is that čto za construction arose through language-internal mechanism. This language-internal development hypothesis is supported by a passage from Novgorod birch bark documents that supposedly predates a Germanic equivalent by one and a half century.

Last, but not the least, while reconstructing the development of the construction along the time axis, I make crucial observation that the development advanced in a step-wise manner. This is not merely a piece of observation but an important tool for at the same time explaining the previous developments and predicting how this construction will evolve in the future.
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College of Humanities (인문대학)Institute for Russian, East European & Eurasian Studies (러시아문화권연구소)러시아연구 (Russian Studies)러시아연구 Volume 21 Number 1/2 (2011)
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