미국 주도 세계화의 국제체계
The Nature of the World System in the Age of Pax Americana
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 미국학연구소
- 미국학, Vol.28, pp. 85-107
- 미국 패권(U. S. hegemony); 근대국제체계(modern international(inter-state)system); 탈근대 국제체계(post modern world system); 세계화(globalization); 단극성(unipolarity); 국제체계의 안정성(stability of international system)
- Beginning aftεr the peace of Westphalia， the modem inter-state system has operated on three principles as neo-realists explain: First, the unit comprising the system is the state that has exclusive sovereignty both internally and externally; Second, the system is an anarchy, that is, has no central authority governing the behavior of units; Third, the system is a selp-help system since there is no centrai authority to help and every unit tries to survive short, modem inter-state system is a world of power politics where sovereign states compete each other to take relative advantages After the end of the Cold War, however, it has often been observed that modem inter-state system has been going through fundamental changes: The state has “retreated" under the pressure of globalization; Transnational or supranational entities such as 1O’s and INGO’s have gained more influences over the states; Inter-state system is no longer an anarchy; The States have been increasingly willing to cooperate with each other to solve transnational problems. Europe has been the exact case where the post-modern world system replaces modem inter-state system. Yet, the world system forming after the retreat of the modem inter-state system has other distinct features: It is a unipolar system prevailed by U. S. hegemony; Economic globalization, which requires larger size for any economic entities to survive, disintegrates as well as integrates the states; New technologies for social organization such as global or regional governance increasingly change people’s identities and loyalties. I designate these three as driving forces of the current globalization which decides the nature of the coming world system.