S-Space College of Social Sciences (사회과학대학) Institute for Korean Regional Studies (국토문제연구소) 지리학논총 (Journal of Geography) 지리학논총 Volume 27/28 (1996)
日帝時代 末期 都市化, 工業化에 대한 農村主民들의 適應 過程에 관한 硏究 - 1935 년~1945年을 中心으로 -
Rural dwellers' adaptation process to urbanization and industrialization in the end of the J apanese colonial period : 1930-45
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 국토문제연구소
- 지리학논총, Vol.28, pp. 75-94
- 도시화; 산업화; 농촌주민; 대응과정; 압출요인; 흡입요인; Urbanization; Industrialization; Rural dwellers; Adaptation process; Push factor; Pull factor; Transitional period-like feature
- This study analyzed what impacts the rapid urbanization and colonial industrialization since
1930 in Korea have had on rural dwellers and how they have adapted to these processes.
The study has been advanced to detect the national changes in the whole Korean society in the end of the japanese colonial period and their concrete adaptation process, on the basis of in depth interviews with the inhabitants who have still been in existence in the case region of Bibong - Myon, H waseong -Gun, Kyeonggi Province.
The research results were summarized as follows.
1. The regional disparities between the provinces and the urban and rural communities were caused by the rapid colonial industrialization since the 1930s, and gradually increasing exploitation by japan and tenant farming system made rural communities extremely impoverished. As a result, a lot of rural inhabitants moved to urban communities, which led to an increasing expansion of urban population
2. The population efflux from rural communities occurred not only in the ruined group of rural communities but also in the whole groups, because it was associated with both the push factor resulting from absolute poverty in rural communities and pull factor in urban ones. Especially, the efflux rate of the young and high-educated groups was higher than any other group.
3. According to the case study, the involuntary rural exodus took place in the low-educated group, mostly associated with economic poverty and draft, whereas the voluntary one occurred in the high-educated group, based on its higher education and its relatives in urban communities.
4. The changes in rural communities in the end of the japanese colonial period took place due to both the push factor resulting from absolute poverty in rural communities and powerful pull factor in urban ones, compared with those in the early and middle japanese colonial period. And the transitional period-like feature was characteristic of them, compared with those in the 1960s, under observations that the rate of the group which returned to rural communities out of the groups which moved to urban ones was higher, its return was usually stemmed from
insecurity of living and some family's secret reasons, and its turn-over rate was higher after it moved to urban communities.