S-Space College of Social Sciences (사회과학대학) Institute for Korean Regional Studies (국토문제연구소) 지리학논총 별호 지리학논총 별호 Volume 30/31/32/33 (1999)
19世紀末 洛東江 流域의 鹽 流通 硏究
A Study on Trade of Salt in the Nakdong River Basin in the late 19th Century
- Issue Date
- 서울대학교 국토문제연구소
- 지리학논총 별호, Vol.32, pp. 1-200
- salt marketing area; salt road; salt merchant; Yõgak; salt peddler; riverport; periodic market; waterway; bumboatman; 鹽 流通圈; 鹽道; 鹽商; 船商; 負商; 浦口; 場市; 旅閣; 買集商; 水運
- Salt is irreplaceable necessaries. Since it is used regularly by all people as both a seasoning and a preservative, its annual consumption and flow is largely predictable.
This study trys to reconstruct salt trade in Nakdong River basin in the late 19th century. Before the construction of railroad in Korea, Movement of goods such as salt, grain, wood and stone heavily relied on rivers.
Therefore, salt was usually transported to ports of fivers by boats.
Nakdong River basin follows Han River basin, As investigation method, Both investigation of documentary records and fieldwork were employed. Main materials and data are historical records, trditional geography books, consul reports, old map and statistical data in the early Japanese Rule(1910-1945).
Writer trys to analyze mainly following three points in this thesis the locations and distributions of saltworks, method of saltmaking, production of sa1t in southeast coast transport system of salt by boats sa1t trade at the river ports, movement from riverports to main periodic markets of counties, salt road, salt marketing area.
Now each item listed above is to be summarized as a final conc1usion.
1. There were 20 counties which produced salt in the coast of Kyõngsang-do, and their counties had 809 saltpans in the late 19century. Saltpans was made of two kinds of materials, that was iron and earth. But because of lack of fuel and import from foreign countries, China and japan, saltpans had dec1ined nearly 32% during 1908-1911 years.
Saltworks of Kyõngsang-do in the late 19th century were distributed evenly over yδ， nil， UIsan, Tongnae, Kimhae, Ch'angwõn, Ungchδí， Sachõn and Konyang counties. Large scale saltworks was largely located in tidal flats near the mouth of rivers, for they were easy to construct saltem and were abundant in reed for fuel. In particular the saltwork of Myõngji-do which belonged to Kimhae county past is noteworthy in that it provided half of total salt consumption of Nakdong River basin people.
2. Total salt production for Kyδngsang-do was about 20,137 metric ton in 1908. Before openning of Seoul-Pusan railroad, about 14,400 metric ton was transported to inland by riverboats.
3. Main trunk of the Nakdong River was navigable for about 348 km and the total length of its navigable tributaries(Nam River, Hwang River, Miryang Rived amounted to about 108 km. Also, probably other small tributaries were navigable at high water level. The navigable waterway and amount of shipping varied according to water level. At the high water level, salt-boats could go upstream to Andong in main trunk of the Nakdong River, to Tansõng in the Nam Riveπ Hap'chõn in the Hwang River, to Yõngchõn in the Kumho River, to Pian in the Wichδin， to Kimchδn in the Ka'pchõn. In other tributaries, although navigable water was short, small salt-boats could go upstream. Consumption of salt was
large in spring and autumn, two seasons usually conformed to low water level or middle water leve1. At the low level water, boats was navigable to Nakdongjin in the main trunk of the Nakdong River which belongs to Sangju county at present and to Chõngamjin in the Nam River which belongs to Urγõg county at present. Generally, boats could freely go upstream to Talji in the main stream of Nakdong River, to Namgangjin in the Nam River, to YIδ;ngjõ near Ha'pchõn in the Hwang River, to Namp'o near Miηαng in the Miryang River.
Carrying capacity of boats varied with flow of river. boats could carry over 200 Sδk(28.8 metric ton) of grain to Kδ， ηlonggang， the confluence of main stream of Nakdong River and its tributary, Nam River, 100-200 Sõk(l4.4-28.8 metric ton) from Kõ，γonggang to Waegwan, 60-100 Sõk(8.64-14.4 metric ton) from Waegwan to D띠i， below 60 Sδk(8.64 metric ton) from Talji to Andong. Boats in the Nakdong River carried from 20 Sõk(2.8 metric ton) of grain to 400 Sδk(57.6 metric ton) of grain, salt-boats carried from 150 Sõk to 230 Sõk of salt. The transport of salt by water was far cheaper than road, by a factor of up to a half and four,
salt marketing area could extend to far deep inland. Rice, soy bean, lumber, hemp, oxhide and other grain formed the majority of the downriver traffic. Sa1t, salted-shrimp, fish, other marine products, and sundry goods formed majority of upward-bound goods.