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행정부 우위시대의 국회 경쟁력 제고방안: 입법사례분석을 중심으로
A Study on the Standing Committe’s Coordination of the Conflict in the Legislative Process of the National Assembly

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Authors
이경태
Issue Date
2006
Publisher
서울대학교 한국정치연구소
Citation
한국정치연구, Vol.15 No.2, pp. 21-59
Keywords
국회상임위원회행정관료입법과정입법갈등조정 메커니즘국회의원 보좌관standing committeeadministrative officialslegislative procedurelegislative conflictsarbitral processsenior assistant to lawmaker
Abstract
이 글의 目的은 행정국가화가 심화되어 가는 현대 행정환경에서 「어떻게 하면 국회의 기능을 강화하여 ‘牽制와 均衡’의 3權 分立 원리에 의한 代議民主主義를 제대로 구현할 것인가」를 분석하고자 하는 것이다. 필자는 국회의 입법갈등과정에 초점을 두고 상임위원회에서의 입법갈등 조정모형을 세워 상임위원회의 입법갈등 조정원리 및 대응전략, 조정방법을 알아보고 입법과정에 참여하는 정책행위자들의 행태를 분석하여 국회상임위원회의 입법 갈등조정능력 제고 방안을 모색하려고 하였다. 이러한 조정 메커니즘을 16대 국회에서의 입법사례인 재외동포법과 남북교류협력법의 입법과정에 적용하여 사례연구를 하였다. 본 논문은 다음과 같이 5개의 章으로 구성된다. 제1장은 序論으로 연구의 목적 · 범위 · 방법 등을 서술하였다. 제2장은 理論的背景으로 국회의사결정의 핵심기구인 상임위원회에서 입법갈등조정이 어떻게 이루어지는지를 분석하기 위한 이론적 배경과 입법갈등 조정 모형과 분석의 틀을 제시하고 갈등조정과정을 설명한다. 본 논문에서는 입법갈등 과정에 참여하는 정책행위자들을 合理的人間이라고 전제하고, 이들이 정치적 합리성 에 따라 행위한다는 假定을 세웠다. 이에 따라 상임위원회의 조정원리는 정당과 국회의원은 「득표극대화 원리」,이익집단은 「이익극대화 원리」, 행정부처는 ‘예산극대화 모형’ 과 ‘관청형성 모형’ 에 의한 「부처 이익극대화 원리」에 의해 행동한다는 것을 조정원리로 한다. 이러한 조정원리를 바탕으로 調整方法은 상임위원회 내부조정방법,상임위원회 외부적 조정방법, 최고정책결정집단에 의한 조정방법으로 분류 하였으며, 대응전략은 협상, 연합구조 형성, 설득, 갈등공개 등의 전략을 혼합적으로 사용한다는 것을 설명한다. 제3장은 이러한 분석틀에 따라 재외동포법과 남북교류협력법 개정 과정에 참여한 이익집단, 행정관료, 정당 등 정책행위자들의 행위 양태와 입법갈등 전개 양상을 살펴보고 상임위원회가 이러한 입법갈등을 어떻게 조정하는 지 살펴본다. 제4장은 상임위원회 갈등조정과정의 問題點을 극복하기 위한 方案을 제시하였다. 본 연구에서는 이와 관련된 제반 문제점을 다루지만 특히 국회의원 補佐職員 제도의 構造的脆弱性이 모든 문제의 근원임을 밝히고 이의 해결방안에 초점을 두고 국회의 自律性과 專門性제고방안에 대하여 중점적으로 서술하였다. 이러한 문제인식이 여타 다른 연구와의 差別性이며 국회의원 보좌관으로서 근무하고 있는 연구자의 생생한 經驗에 의한 問題認識과 診斷 및 處方임을 밝힌다.
저15장은 결론으로 본 연구의 내용을 요약하였다.

The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the process of realizing democracy based on the separation of the three mainstream powers in ‘ checks and balances' by strengthening the functions of the National Assembly in the modern administration. With much focus on the conflicts of the legislative process of the National Assembly, one has proposed to establish an arbital model that handles the legislative conflict in the standing committee. Moreover, by analyzing the arbitral mechanism, responsive strategy, behavior, or the policy makers involved in the legislative proceedings, one attempts to propose new measures that enhance the standing committee’s coordination ability of legislative conflict. Such arbiral mechanisms have been applied in the following case studies on the legislative process of “the Overseas Korean Act" and “the Cooperation between South and North Korea Act" in the 16th National Assembly session. This thesis is comprised of five chapters as follows: Chapter 1 is an introduction that examines the purpose, scope and method of this thesis. Chapter 2 touches upon the theoretical background that explains the arbital mechanism of the legislative conflict in the standing committee, the core organization that reflects the policy making of the National Assembly. Furthermore, it proposes an arbital model for the legislative conflict and analytical tools to explain the arbital process in the conflict. It is assumed that policy makers involved in the legislative conflict are rational human beings have made hypotheses that their behavior depends on ‘political rationality'. Therefore the arbital mechanism of each group can be as follows: the arbital mechanism of the standing committee perceives parties and the lawmakers as a “maximizing voting mechanism", interest groups as “maximizing interests principle”, administrative bodies as “maximizing budget models" and “bureau-shaping models" thereby bringing about “maximization of profits in each division". Based on such arbital mechanisms, the arbitration methods have been categorized into interior and exterior arbitration methods within the standing committee. The arbitration method is made by the most authoritative policy makers. The responsive strategy involves a mixture of different methods such as negotiation, foundation of a united structure, persuasion, discovery of the conflict and so forth Chapter 3 examines the behavior of policy makers such as the interests groups, administrative officials, and parties involved in the amending process of “the Overseas Korean Act" and “ the Cooperation between South and North Korea Act" as well as the process of the legislative conflict. Furthermore, I will investigate how the standing committee mediates the legislative conflict. It should be noted that the actors involved in legislative proceedings acted based on the political rationality principle. The influence made by the administrative officials were evidently the most significant, however, with regard to the Cooperation between South and North Korea Act, it was an exceptional case in that it did not take into account political rationality but rather turned into an ideological confrontation between the right and left. Yet, from a broader perspective, this case provides empirical evidence in which the right and left wings are conscious of empowering the supporting base in voting. Based on this observation, one evaluates the problems regarding the arbitration of conflict in the standing committee. Chapter 4 suggests new measures overcoming the problems related to arbital process in the conflict within the standing committee. Although this thesis deals with these problems overall, it highlights structural weakness(i.e. the staff system of the lawmakers) as the deep-rooted cause of these problems. It focuses on alternative measures to solve these problems and proposes autonomy and specialization of the National Assembly. Based on my experience as the Senior Legislative Assistant to the Lawmaker, this thesis can be distinguished from other theses because its approach is empirically based on evaluating the problems and proposing possible solutions through a realistic lens. Chapter 5 Conclusion, Summary of this thesis.
ISSN
1738-7477
Language
Korean
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10371/90085
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College of Social Sciences (사회과학대학)Institute of Korean Political Studies (한국정치연구소)한국정치연구 (Journal of Korean Politics)한국정치연구 Volume 15 Number 1/2 (2006)
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