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한국농촌주민의 의례와 종교생활의 변화 : 경기도 평택시 S마을을 중심으로
Changes of Rites and Religion in a Korean Rural Community : Focused on S Village in Pyeongtaek, Gyeonggi Province

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Authors
김주희
Issue Date
2014
Publisher
서울대학교 비교문화연구소
Citation
비교문화연구, Vol.20 No.1, pp. 191-225
Keywords
funeral riteancestor worship ceremoniesshamanismfarming mechanizationlongitudinal study장례제례무속농경기계화종단적 연구
Abstract
이 연구는 지난 삼십여 년간 경기도 평택시 소재 S마을주민들의 삶의 변화를 추적하는 재조사의 일환으로 주민들의 의례와 종교생활의 변화를 살펴보고 그 의미를 분석하는 것을 목적으로 한다. S마을에 대해 필자는 1977-78년 사이 민족지(ethnography) 조사를 했으며, 그 후 여러 차례에 걸쳐 주민들의 가족과 사회적 관계의 변화에 대해 재조사를 수행한 바 있다(김주희 2006, 2011a, 2011b, 2013). 여기서는 삼십여 년 전 첫 조사 당시의 자료를 기준으로 그 동안 주민들의 의례와 종교생활의 변모된 모습을 간추려 보고자 한다. 전형적인 벼농사 마을이었던 S마을은 지난 삼십여 년간 농경기계화가 완전히 이루어지면서 농경에 소비되는 노동력이 크게 감축되었고 여분의 노동력이 마을 밖에서의 소득 활동에 쓰이게 되면서 벼농사는 부업이 되고 농외 소득활동이 본업이 되는 커다란 경제적 조건의 변화를 경험해 왔다. 마을 밖 경제적 활동은 남녀 모두에게 해당되는 것으로 남성은 인근 농공단지에, 여성은 새롭게 개발된 관광단지에 취업해 임

금소득을 높여왔다. 삼십여 년 전 오고가는 정을 쌓기 위해 친밀한 접촉을 귀히 여기던 주민들은 이제 거의 만날 일이 없을 정도로 각자 바쁜 경제적 활동에 몰입하게 되면서 마을 내 인간관계는 크게 축소되었고 마을 공동체 의식 수준도 함께 낮아졌다.
This paper tries to trace changes for the past three decades of rites and religion among villagers of S village located in Pyeongtaek, Gyeonggi Province. Special attention was paid to funeral rites, ancestor worship ceremonies, and shamanic rituals. Twenty village women aged from 40s to 80s were in-depth interviewed to elicit the information on ritual behaviors of funeral rites and ancestor worship ceremonies and attitudes toward shamanism. The data was compared with the circumstances of 1977-78. Noticeable changes in the lives of the villagers for the last three decades are related to their economic activities outside of the village. Funeral rites are now commercialized and are not held any more in the village. Ancestor worship ceremonies are simplified in terms of the number of ancestors worshiped and kinship members participating in. These changes contest the drastic decrease of communal consciousness not only in the level of the community but of the kin group as well. Elements responsible for these changes are directly brought by farming mechanization which has greatly reduced the farming energy, thereby enabling both men and women with spare labor to easily engage themselves in wage earning jobs provided by the industrial and tourist facilities newly developed nearby. They are more than ready to follow the recent national trend of handiness in rites of passage such as funeral and ancestor worship. The most surprising finding in recent religious lives of villagers is the disappearance of the shamanic ritual, gut, which used to be very popular among them during 1970s. Some of those who were passionate shamanism believers discarded it, while many of them converted to Buddhism. Only two out of 40 households keep visiting shamans. The number of Christians have not changed. It is the finding of the paper that villagers' attitudes toward shamanism can be understood only when ups and downs of the particular life course of each villager are fully considered. It is the conclusion of the paper that changes in rites of passage and religious lives among villagers should be interpreted with different perspectives.
ISSN
1226-0568
Language
Korean
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10371/92721
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College of Social Sciences (사회과학대학)Institute of Cultural Studies(비교문화연구소)비교문화연구비교문화연구 vol.20 no.1/2 (2014)
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